Name: Rybix ODT
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Commonly used brand name(s)
In the U.S.
- FusePaq Synapryn
- Rybix ODT
- Ultram ER
Available Dosage Forms:
- Tablet, Extended Release
- Capsule, Extended Release
- Tablet, Disintegrating
Therapeutic Class: Analgesic
Chemical Class: Opioid
Before Using Rybix ODT
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:
Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.
Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of Rybix™ ODT, Ryzolt™, and Ultram® tablets in children younger than 16 years of age. Safety and efficacy have not been established.
Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of Ultram® ER extended-release tablets in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.
Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of tramadol in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have unwanted side effects (eg, constipation, lightheadedness, dizziness, or fainting, stomach upset, weakness) and age-related liver, kidney, heart, or lung problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving tramadol.
|All Trimesters||C||Animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.|
There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.
Interactions with Medicines
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.
- Methylene Blue
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Chloral Hydrate
- Morphine Sulfate Liposome
- Nitrous Oxide
- Opium Alkaloids
- Peginterferon Alfa-2b
- Sodium Oxybate
- St John's Wort
- Tolonium Chloride
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol
Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using this medicine with any of the following is usually not recommended, but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use this medicine, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.
Other Medical Problems
The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
- Alcohol abuse, history of or
- Brain tumor or
- Depression, history of or
- Drug abuse or dependence, history of or
- Gallstones or
- Head injury or
- Hormonal problems or
- Increased pressure in the head or
- Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) or
- Lung or breathing problems (eg, COPD, cor pulmonale, hypercapnia, hypoxia) or
- Mental illness, history of or
- Phenylketone allergy, history of or
- Seizures or epilepsy, history of or
- Stomach problems, severe—Use with caution. The chance of serious side effects may be increased.
- Breathing or lung problems (eg, asthma, hypercapnia, respiratory depression), severe or
- Stomach or bowel blockage (eg, paralytic ileus)—Should not be used in patients with this condition.
- Kidney disease or
- Liver disease (including cirrhosis)—Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body.
- Phenylketonuria (PKU)—The orally disintegrating tablet contains phenylalanine, which can make this condition worse.
Precautions While Using Rybix ODT
It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure the medicine is working properly and to check for any unwanted effects.
Do not use this medicine if you are using or have used an MAO inhibitor (eg, Eldepryl®, Marplan®, Nardil®, or Parnate®) within the past 14 days.
Check with your doctor before using this medicine with alcohol or other medicines that affect the central nervous system (CNS). The use of alcohol or other medicines that affect the CNS with (drug) may worsen the side effects of this medicine, such as dizziness, poor concentration, drowsiness, unusual dreams, and trouble with sleeping. Some examples of medicines that affect the CNS are antihistamines or medicine for allergies or colds, sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicines, medicine for depression, medicine for anxiety, prescription pain medicine or narcotics, medicine for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, medicine for seizures or barbiturates, muscle relaxants, or anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics.
Using this medicine while you are pregnant may cause neonatal withdrawal syndrome in your newborn babies. Tell your doctor right away if your baby has an abnormal sleep pattern, diarrhea, a high-pitched cry, irritability, shakiness or tremors, weight loss, vomiting, or fails to gain weight.
Check with your doctor right away if you have anxiety, restlessness, a fast heartbeat, fever, sweating, muscle spasms, twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or see or hear things that are not there. These may be symptoms of a serious condition called serotonin syndrome. Your risk may be higher if you also take certain other medicines that affect serotonin levels in your body.
This medicine can increase thoughts of suicide. Tell your doctor right away if you start to feel more depressed or have thoughts about hurting yourself. Report any unusual thoughts or behaviors that trouble you, especially if they are new or get worse quickly. Make sure your caregiver knows if you have trouble sleeping, get upset easily, have a big increase in energy, or start to act reckless. Tell your doctor if you have any sudden or strong feelings, such as feeling nervous, angry, restless, violent, or scared. Let your doctor know if you or anyone in your family has bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder) or has tried to commit suicide.
This medicine may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have a rash, itching, hoarseness, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, swelling of your hands, face, or mouth, or chest pain while you are using this medicine.
This medicine may cause some people to become drowsy, dizzy, lightheaded, or less alert than they are normally. Make sure you know how you react to this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or not alert.
Make sure your doctor knows if you are pregnant, may be pregnant, or planning to become pregnant.
Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur, especially when you get up suddenly from a lying or sitting position. Getting up slowly may help lessen this problem.
Before having any kind of surgery (including dental surgery) or emergency treatment, tell the doctor or dentist in charge that you are taking this medicine. Taking tramadol together with medicines that are used during surgery or dental or emergency treatments may cause increased side effects.
If you think you or someone else may have taken an overdose of tramadol, get emergency help at once. Signs of an overdose include convulsions (seizures), difficult or troubled breathing, irregular, fast or slow, or shallow breathing, pale or blue lips, fingernails, or skin, pinpoint pupils of the eyes, or trouble breathing.
Do not stop suddenly taking this medicine without first checking with your doctor. Your doctor may want you to gradually reduce the amount you are using before stopping it completely. This may help prevent a possible worsening of your condition and reduce the possibility of withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, diarrhea, headache, nausea, shivering, sweating, tremors, or trouble with sleeping.
Using too much of this medicine may cause infertility (unable to have children). Talk with your doctor before using this medicine if you plan to have children.
Rybix ODT Description
Rybix® ODT (tramadol hydrochloride) Orally Disintegrating Tablets is a centrally acting analgesic in an orally disintegrating formulation using a tablet formulation base. The chemical name for tramadol hydrochloride is (±) cis -2-[(dimethylamino) methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl) cyclohexanol hydrochloride. Its structural formula is:
RYBIX ODT is supplied as orally disintegrating tablets containing 50 mg of tramadol hydrochloride for oral administration. Tramadol hydrochloride is a white, bitter, crystalline and odorless powder. It is readily soluble in water and ethanol and has a pKa of 9.41. The n-octanol/water log partition coefficient (logP) is 1.35 at pH 7. The tablets are white in color and contain the inactive ingredients aspartame, copovidone, crospovidone, ethylcellulose, magnesium stearate, mannitol, mint flavor, and silicon dioxide.
Rybix ODT - Clinical Pharmacology
RYBIX ODT (tramadol HCl) is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic in an orally disintegrating tablet form. Although its mode of action is not completely understood, from animal tests, at least two complementary mechanisms appear applicable: binding of parent and M1 metabolite to μ-opioid receptors and weak inhibition of reuptake of norephinephrine and serotonin. Opioid activity is due to both low affinity binding of the parent compound and higher affinity binding of the O-demethylated metabolite M1 to μ-opioid receptors. In animal models, M1 is up to 6 times more potent than tramadol in producing analgesia and 200 times more potent in μ-opioid binding. Tramadol-induced analgesia is only partially antagonized by the opiate antagonist naloxone in several animal tests. The relative contribution of both tramadol and M1 to human analgesia is dependent upon the plasma concentrations of each compound (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics).
Tramadol has been shown to inhibit reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin in vitro, as have some other opioid analgesics. These mechanisms may contribute independently to the overall analgesic profile of tramadol. Analgesia in humans begins approximately within one hour after administration and reaches a peak in approximately two to three hours. Apart from analgesia, tramadol administration may produce a constellation of symptoms (including dizziness, somnolence, nausea, constipation, sweating and pruritus) similar to that of other opioids. In contrast to morphine, tramadol has not been shown to cause histamine release. At therapeutic doses, tramadol has no effect on heart rate, left-ventricular function or cardiac index. Orthostatic hypotension has been observed.
The analgesic activity of tramadol is due to both parent drug and the M1 metabolite (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamic). Tramadol is administered as a racemate and both the [-] and [+] forms of both tramadol and M1 are detected in the circulation. Tramadol is well absorbed orally with an absolute bioavailability of 75%. Tramadol has a volume of distribution of approximately 2.7 L/kg and is 20% bound to plasma proteins. Tramadol is extensively metabolized by a number of pathways, including CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, as well as by conjugation of parent and metabolites. One metabolite, M1, is pharmacologically active in animal models. The formation of M1 is dependent upon CYP2D6 and as such is subject to inhibition, which may affect the therapeutic response (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions). Tramadol and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine with observed plasma half-lives of 6.3 and 7.4 hours for tramadol and M1, respectively. Linear pharmacokinetics have been observed following multiple doses of 50 and 100 mg to steady-state.
Racemic tramadol is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral administration. The mean absolute bioavailability of a 100 mg oral dose is approximately 75%. The mean peak plasma concentration of racemic tramadol and M1 occurs at two and three hours, respectively, after administration in healthy adults. In general, both enantiomers of tramadol and M1 follow a parallel time course in the body following single and multiple doses although small differences (~ 10%) exist in the absolute amount of each enantiomer present Steady-state plasma concentrations of both tramadol and M1 are achieved within two days with q.i.d. dosing. There is no evidence of self-induction (see Figure 1 and Table 1 below).
Figure 1: Mean Tramadol and M1 Plasma Concentration Profiles after a Single 100 mg Oral Dose and after Twenty-Nine 100 mg Oral Doses of Tramadol HCl given q.i.d.
|Parent Drug/ |
|Peak Conc. (ng/mL)||Time to Peak (hrs)||Clearance/Fb |
|Healthy Adults, 100 mg qid, MD p.o.||Tramadol||592 (30)||2.3 (61)||5.90 (25)||6.7 (15)|
|M1||110 (29)||2.4 (46)||c||7.0 (14)|
|Healthy Adults |
100 mg SD p.o.
|Tramadol||308 (25)||1.6 (63)||8.50 (31)||5.6 (20)|
|M1||55.0 (36)||3.0 (51)||c||6.7 (16)|
|Geriatric,( >75 yrs) |
50 mg SD p.o.
|Tramadol||208 (31)||2.1 (19)||6.89 (25)||7.0 (23)|
|Hepatic Impaired |
50 mg SD p.o.
|Tramadol||217 (11)||1.9 (16)||4.23 (56)||13.3 (11)|
|M1||19.4 (12)||9.8 (20)||c||18.5 (15)|
|Renal Impaired |
CLcr 10-30 mL/min
100 mg SD i.v.
|Tramadol||c||c||4.23 (54)||10.6 (31)|
|Renal Impaired |
100 mg SD i.v.
|Tramadol||c||c||3.73 (17)||11.0 (29)|
|a SD = single dose, MD = multiple dose, p.o. = oral administration |
i.v. = Intravenous administration, q.i.d. = Four times daily
b F represents the bioavailability of tramadol
c Not applicable
d Not measured
Food and Water Effects: Oral administration of RYBIX ODT with food does not significantly affect its extent of absorption, however, food does delay tmax by about 30 minutes compared to fasting conditions. The clinical significance of this delay is not known. No difference has been identified in systemic exposure (AUC), peak exposure (Cmax), time to peak exposure (Tmax), and apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) of tramadol and metabolites M1 and M5 between administration of RYBIX ODT with and without water and Ultram®.
The volume of distribution of tramadol was 2.6 and 2.9 liters/kg in male and female subjects, respectively, following a 100 mg intravenous dose. The binding of tramadol to human plasma proteins is approximately 20% and binding also appears to be independent of concentration up to 10 μg/mL. Saturation of plasma protein binding occurs only at concentrations outside the clinically relevant range.
Tramadol is extensively metabolized after oral administration by a number of pathways, including CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, as well as by conjugation of parent and metabolites. Approximately 30% of the dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug, whereas 60% of the dose is excreted as metabolites. The remainder is excreted either as unidentified or as unextractable metabolites. The major metabolic pathways appear to be N- and O- demethylation and glucuronidation or sulfation in the liver. One metabolite (O – desmethyltramadol, denoted M1) is pharmacologically active in animal models. Formation of M1 is dependent on CYP2D6 and as such is subject to inhibition, which may affect the therapeutic response (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interaction).
Approximately 7% of the population has reduced activity of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme of cytochrome P-450. These individuals are “poor metabolizers” of debrisoquine, dextromethorphan, tricyclic antidepressants, among other drugs. Based on a population PK analysis of Phase I studies in healthy subjects, concentrations of tramadol were approximately 20% higher in “poor metabolizers” versus “extensive metabolizers,” while M1 concentrations were 40% lower. Concomitant therapy with inhibitors of CYP2D6 such as fluoxetine, paroxetine and quinidine could result in significant drug interactions. In vitro drug interaction studies in human liver microsomes indicate that inhibitors of CYP2D6 such as fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine, amitriptyline and quinidine inhibit the metabolism of tramadol to various degrees, suggesting that concomitant administration of these compounds could result in increases in tramadol concentrations and decreased concentrations of M1. The full pharmacological impact of these alterations in terms of either efficacy or safety is unknown. Concomitant use of SEROTONIN re-uptake INHIBITORS and MAO INHIBITORS may enhance the risk of adverse events, including seizure (see WARNINGS) and serotonin syndrome.
Tramadol is eliminated primarily through metabolism by the liver and the metabolites are eliminated primarily by the kidneys. The mean terminal plasma elimination half-lives of racemic tramadol and racemic M1 are 6.3 ± 1.4 and 7.4 ± 1.4 hours, respectively. The plasma elimination half-life of racemic tramadol increased from approximately six hours to seven hours upon multiple dosing.
Impaired renal function results in a decreased rate and extent of excretion of tramadol and its active metabolite, M1. In patients with creatinine clearances of less than 30 mL/min, adjustment of the dosing regimen is recommended (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). The total amount of tramadol and M1 removed during a 4-hour dialysis period is less than 7% of the administered dose.
Metabolism of tramadol and M1 is reduced in patients with advanced cirrhosis of the liver, resulting in both a larger area under the concentration time curve for tramadol and longer tramadol and M1 elimination half-lives (13 hrs. for tramadol and 19 hrs. for M1). In cirrhotic patients, adjustment of the dosing regimen is recommended (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Healthy elderly subjects aged 65 to 75 years have plasma tramadol concentrations and elimination half-lives comparable to those observed in healthy subjects less than 65 years of age. In subjects over 75 years, maximum serum concentrations are elevated (208 vs. 162 ng/mL) and the elimination half-life is prolonged (7 vs. 6 hours) compared to subjects 65 to 75 years of age. Adjustment of the daily dose is recommended for patients older than 75 years (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Following a single oral dose of RYBIX ODT to healthy volunteers, no gender effect was observed. The AUC and Cmax values for RYBIX ODT were similar in males and females. Dosage adjustment based on gender is not recommended. The absolute bioavailability of tramadol was 73% in males and 79% in females. The plasma clearance was 6.4 mL/min/kg in males and 5.7 mL/min/kg in females following a 100 mg dose of tramadol.
RYBIX ODT is an orally disintegrating tablet, but there are no studies that indicate that its onset of action is faster than tramadol tablets.
An orally swallowed immediate release tablet of tramadol has been given in single oral doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg to patients with pain following surgical procedures and pain following oral surgery (extraction of impacted molars). In single-dose models of pain following oral surgery, pain relief was demonstrated in some patients at doses of 50 mg and 75 mg. A dose of 100 mg of orally swallowed immediate release tablet of tramadol tended to provide analgesia superior to codeine sulfate 60 mg, but it was not as effective as the combination of aspirin 650 mg with codeine phosphate 60 mg.
An orally swallowed immediate release tablet of tramadol has been studied in three long-term controlled trials involving a total of 820 patients, with 530 patients receiving an orally swallowed immediate release tablet of tramadol. Patients with a variety of chronic painful conditions were studied in double-blind trials of one to three months duration. Average daily doses of approximately 250 mg of an orally swallowed immediate release tablet of tramadol in divided doses were generally comparable to five doses of acetaminophen 300 mg with codeine phosphate 30 mg daily, five doses of aspirin 325 mg with codeine phosphate 30 mg daily, or two to three doses of acetaminophen 500 mg with oxycodone hydrochloride 5 mg daily.
In a randomized, blinded clinical study with 129 to 132 patients per group, a 10-day titration to a daily orally swallowed immediate release tablet of tramadol dose of 200 mg (50 mg q.i.d.), attained in 50 mg increments every 3 days, was found to result in fewer discontinuations due to dizziness or vertigo than titration over only 4 days or no titration.
Figure 2: Protocol CAPSS – 047 Time to Discontinuation Due to Nausea and Vomiting
Acute Abdominal Conditions
The administration of RYBIX ODT may complicate the clinical assessment of patients with acute abdominal conditions.
Use in Renal and Hepatic Disease
Impaired renal function results in a decreased rate and extent of excretion of tramadol and its active metabolite, M1. In patients with creatinine clearances of less than 30 mL/min, dosing reduction is recommended (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Metabolism of tramadol and M1 is reduced in patients with advanced cirrhosis of the liver. In cirrhotic patients, dosing reduction is recommended (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
With the prolonged half-life in these conditions, achievement of steady-state is delayed, so that it may take several days for elevated plasma concentrations to develop.
Information for Patients
- Patients should be informed that RYBIX ODT may cause seizures and/or serotonin syndrome with concomitant use of serotonergic agents (including SSRIs, SNRIs, and triptans) or drugs that significantly reduce the metabolic clearance of tramadol.
- RYBIX ODT may impair mental or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery.
- RYBIX ODT should not be taken with alcohol containing beverages.
- RYBIX ODT should be used with caution when taking medications such as tranquilizers, hypnotics or other opiate containing analgesics.
- Female patients should be instructed to inform the physician if they are pregnant, think they might become pregnant, or are trying to become pregnant (see PRECAUTIONS, Labor and Delivery).
- The patient should understand the single-dose and 24-hour dose limit and the time interval between doses, since exceeding these recommendations can result in respiratory depression, seizures and death.
- To open the blister pack, peel back the foil on the blister. Do not push tablet through the foil. Remove the tablet and place it in the mouth, where it will dissolve in seconds and then be swallowed with the saliva.
- Tablet may be taken with or without water.
- Do NOT chew, break, or split the tablet.
- Phenylketonurics: RYBIX ODT contains phenylalanine.
CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 Inhibitors
Concomitant administration of CYP2D6 and/or CYP3A4 inhibitors (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics), such as quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and amitriptyline (CYP2D6 inhibitors), and ketoconazole and erythromycin (CYP3A4 inhibitors), may reduce metabolic clearance of tramadol increasing the risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome.
There have been postmarketing reports of serotonin syndrome with use of tramadol and SSRIs/SNRIs or MAOIs and α2-adrenergic blockers. Caution is advised when RYBIX ODT is coadministered with other drugs that may affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems, such as SSRIs, MAOIs, triptans, linezolid (an antibiotic which is a reversible non-selective MAOI), lithium, or St. John’s Wort. If concomitant treatment of RYBIX ODT with a drug affecting the serotonergic neurotransmitter system is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases (see WARNINGS, Serotonin Syndrome).
Based on the mechanism of action of tramadol and the potential for serotonin syndrome, caution is advised when RYBIX ODT is coadministered with a triptan. If concomitant treatment of RYBIX ODT with a triptan is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases (see WARNINGS, Serotonin Syndrome)
Use With Carbamazepine
Patients taking carbamazepine may have a significantly reduced analgesic effect of tramadol. Because carbamazepine increases tramadol metabolism and because of the seizure risk associated with tramadol, concomitant administration of RYBIX ODT and carbamazepine is not recommended.
Use With Quinidine
Tramadol is metabolized to M1 by CYP2D6. Quinidine is a selective inhibitor of the isoenyzme, so that concomitant administration of quinidine and tramadol results in increased concentrations of tramadol and reduced concentrations of M1. The clinical consequences of these findings are unknown. In vitro drug interaction studies in human liver microsomes indicate that tramadol has no effect on quinidine metabolism.
Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Tramadol
In vitro drug interaction studies in human liver microsomes indicate that concomitant administration with inhibitors of CYP2D6 such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, and amitriptyline could result in some inhibition of the metabolism of tramadol. Administration of CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole and erythromycin, or inducers, such as rifampin and St. John’s Wort, with Ultram® may affect the metabolism of tramadol leading to altered tramadol exposure.
Potential for Tramadol to Affect Other Drugs
In vitro studies indicate that tramadol is unlikely to inhibit the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of other drugs when tramadol is administered concomitantly at therapeutic doses. Tramadol does not appear to induce its own metabolism in humans, since observed maximal plasma concentrations after multiple oral doses are higher than expected based on single-dose data. Tramadol is a mild inducer of selected drug metabolism pathways measured in animals.
Use With Cimetidine
Concomitant administration with cimetidine does not result in clinically significant changes in tramadol pharmacokinetics. Therefore, no alteration of the RYBIX ODT dosage regimen is recommended.
Use With MAO Inhibitors
Interactions with MAO Inhibitors, due to interference with detoxification mechanisms, have been reported for some centrally acting drugs (see WARNINGS, Use With MAO Inhibitors).
Use With Digoxin and Warfarin
Post-marketing surveillance of tramadol has revealed rare reports of digoxin toxicity and alteration of warfarin effect, including elevation of prothrombin times.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
A slight, but statistically significant, increase in two common murine tumors, pulmonary and hepatic, was observed in a mouse carcinogenicity study, particularly in aged mice. Mice were dosed orally up to 30 mg/kg (90 mg/m2 or 0.36 times the maximum daily human dosage of 246 mg/m2) for approximately two years, although the study was not done with the Maximum Tolerated Dose. This finding is not believed to suggest risk in humans. No such finding occurred in a rat carcinogenicity study (dosing orally up to 30 mg/kg, 180 mg/m2, or 0.73 times the maximum daily human dosage).
Tramadol was not mutagenic in the following assays: Ames Salmonella microsomal activation test, CHO/HPRT mammalian cell assay, mouse lymphoma assay (in the absence of metabolic activation), dominant lethal mutation tests in mice, chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamsters, and bone marrow micronucleus tests in mice and Chinese hamsters. Weakly mutagenic results occurred in the presence of metabolic activation in the mouse lymphoma assay and micronucleus test in rats. Overall, the weight of evidence from these tests indicates that tramadol does not pose a genotoxic risk to humans. No effects on fertility were observed for tramadol at oral dose levels up to 50 mg/kg (300 mg/m2) in male rats and 75 mg/kg (450 mg/m2) in female rats. These dosages are 1.2 and 1.8 times the maximum daily human dosage of 246 mg/m2, respectively.
Pregnancy, Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C.
Tramadol has been shown to be embryotoxic and fetotoxic in mice, (120 mg/kg or 360 mg/m2), rats (≥ 25 mg/kg or 150 mg/m2) and rabbits (≥ 75 mg/kg or 900 mg/m2) at maternally toxic dosages, but was not teratogenic at these dose levels. These dosages on a mg/m2 basis are 1.4, ≥ 0.6, and ≥ 3.6 times the maximum daily human dosage (246 mg/m2) for mouse, rat and rabbit, respectively.
No drug-related teratogenic effects were observed in progeny of mice (up to 140 mg/kg or 420 mg/m2), rats (up to 80 mg/kg or 480 mg/m2) or rabbits (up to 300 mg/kg or 3600 mg/m2) treated with tramadol by various routes. Embryo and fetal toxicity consisted primarily of decreased fetal weights, skeletal ossification and increased supernumerary ribs at maternally toxic dose levels. Transient delays in developmental or behavioral parameters were also seen in pups from rat dams allowed to deliver. Embryo and fetal lethality were reported only in one rabbit study at 300 mg/kg (3600 mg/m2), a dose that would cause extreme maternal toxicity in the rabbit. The dosages listed for mouse, rat and rabbit are 1.7, 1.9 and 14.6 times the maximum daily human dosage (246 mg/m2), respectively.
Tramadol was evaluated in peri- and post-natal studies in rats. Progeny of dams receiving oral (gavage) dose levels of 50 mg/kg (300 mg/m2 or 1.2 times the maximum daily human tramadol dosage) or greater had decreased weights, and pup survival was decreased early in lactation at 80 mg/kg (480 mg/m2 or 1.9 and higher the maximum daily human dose).
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Tramadol should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Neonatal seizures, neonatal withdrawal syndrome, fetal death and stillbirth have been reported during post-marketing.
Labor and Delivery
RYBIX ODT should not be used in pregnant women prior to or during labor unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks. Safe use in pregnancy has not been established. Chronic use during pregnancy may lead to physical dependence and postpartum withdrawal symptoms in the newborn (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE). Tramadol has been shown to cross the placenta. The mean ratio of serum tramadol in the umbilical veins compared to maternal veins was 0.83 for 40 women given tramadol during labor.
The effect of tramadol if any, on the later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child is unknown.
RYBIX ODT is not recommended for obstetrical preoperative medication or for post-delivery analgesia in nursing mothers because its safety in infants and newborns has not been studied. Following a single IV 100 mg dose of tramadol, the cumulative excretion in breast milk within 16 hours postdose was 100 μg of tramadol (0.1% of the maternal dose) and 27 μg of M1.
The safety and efficacy of RYBIX ODT in patients under 16 years of age have not been established. The use of RYBIX ODT in the pediatric population is not recommended.
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. In patients over 75 years of age, daily doses in excess of 300 mg are not recommended (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
A total of 455 elderly (65 years of age or older) subjects were exposed to tramadol in controlled clinical trials. Of those, 145 subjects were 75 years of age and older.
In studies including geriatric patients, treatment-limiting adverse events were higher in subjects over 75 years of age compared to those under 65 years of age. Specifically, 30% of those over 75 years of age had gastrointestinal treatment-limiting adverse events compared to 17% of those under 65 years of age. Constipation resulted in discontinuation of treatment in 10%of those over 75.
An orally swallowed immediate release tablet of tramadol was administered to 550 patients during the double-blind or open label extension periods in U.S. studies of chronic nonmalignant pain. Of these patients, 375 were 65 years old or older. Table 2 reports the cumulative incidence rate of adverse reactions by 7, 30 and 90 days for the most frequent reactions (5% or more by 7 days). The most frequently reported events were in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal system. Although the reactions listed in the table are felt to be probably related to tramadol administration, the reported rates also include some events that may have been due to underlying disease or concomitant medication. The overall incidence rates of adverse experiences in these trials were similar for tramadol and the active control groups, acetaminophen 300 mg with codeine phosphate 30 mg, and aspirin 325 mg with codeine phosphate 30 mg, however, the rates of withdrawals due to adverse events appeared to be higher in the tramadol groups.
|Up to 7 Days||Up to 30 Days||Up to 90 Days|
|1 “CNS Stimulation” is a composite of nervousness, anxiety, agitation, tremor, spasticity, euphoria, emotional liability, and hallucinations.|
Incidence 1% to less than 5%, possibly casually related: the following lists adverse reactions that occurred with an incidence of 1% to less than 5% in clinical trials, and for which the possibility of a causal relationship with tramadol exists.
Body as a Whole: Malaise.
Central Nervous System: Anxiety, Confusion, Coordination disturbance, Euphoria, Miosis, Nervousness, Sleep disorder.
Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, Anorexia, Flatulence.
Special Senses: Visual disturbance.
Urogenital: Menopausal symptoms, Urinary frequency, Urinary retention.
Incidence less than 1%, possibly causally related: the following lists adverse reactions that occurred with an incidence of less than 1% in clinical trials and/or reported in post-marketing experience.
Body as a Whole: Accidental injury, Allergic reaction, Anaphylaxis, Death, Suicidal tendency, Weight loss, Serotonin syndrome (mental status change, hyperreflexia, fever, shivering, tremor, agitation, diaphoresis, seizures and coma).
Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension, Syncope, Tachycardia.
Central Nervous System: Abnormal gait, Amnesia, Cognitive dysfunction, Depression, Difficulty in concentration, Hallucinations, Paresthesia, Seizure (see WARNINGS), Tremor.
Skin: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Urticaria, Vesicles.
Special Senses: Dysgeusia.
Urogenital: Dysuria, Menstrual disorder.
Other adverse experiences, causal relationship unknown: A variety of other adverse events were reported infrequently in patients taking tramadol during clinical trials and/or reported in post-marketing experience. A causal relationship between tramadol and these events has not been determined. However, the most significant events are listed below as alerting information to the physician.
Cardiovascular: Abnormal ECG, Hypertension, Hypotension, Myocardial ischemia, Palpitations, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary embolism.
Central Nervous System: Migraine, Speech disorders.
Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal bleeding, Hepatitis, Stomatitis, Liver failure.
Laboratory Abnormalities: Creatinine increase, Elevated liver enzymes, Hemoglobin decrease, Proteinuria.
Sensory: Cataracts, Deafness, Tinnitus.
Rybix ODT Dosage and Administration
Do NOT chew, break, or split the tablet.
Adults (17 years of age and over)
For patients with moderate to moderately severe chronic pain not requiring rapid onset of analgesic effect, the tolerability of tramadol can be improved by initiating therapy with a titration regimen. The total daily dose may be increased by 50 mg as tolerated every 3 days to reach 200 mg/day (50 mg q.i.d.). After titration, RYBIX ODT 50 to 100 mg can be administered as needed for pain relief every 4 to 6 hours not to exceed 400 mg/day.
For the subset of patients for whom rapid onset of analgesic effect is required and for whom the benefits outweigh the risk of discontinuation due to adverse events associated with higher initial doses, RYBIX ODT 50 mg to 100 mg can be administered as needed for pain relief every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 400 mg per day.
Place RYBIX ODT tablet on the tongue until it completely disintegrates and then swallow it. It may take approximately one minute for the tablet to disintegrate on the tongue. Tablet may be taken with or without water.
Individualization of Dose
Good pain management practice dictates that the dose be individualized according to patient need using the lowest beneficial dose. Studies with tramadol in adults have shown that starting at the lowest possible dose and titrating upward will result in fewer discontinuations and increased tolerability.
In all patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min, it is recommended that the dosing interval of RYBIX ODT be increased to 12 hours, with a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. Since only 7% of an administered dose is removed by hemodialysis, dialysis patients can receive their regular dose on the day of dialysis.
The recommended dose for adult patients with cirrhosis is 50 mg every 12 hours.
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient over 65 years old should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. For elderly patients over 75 years old, total dose should not exceed 300 mg/day.
Principal display panel
(6 x 5 blister cards)
(tramadol HCI) Orally Disintegrating Tablets
Each tablet contains 50 mg of tramadol HCI
|RYBIX ODT |
tramadol hydrochloride tablet, orally disintegrating
|Labeler - Shionogi Inc. (949127786)|