Qudexy XR Capsules
Name: Qudexy XR Capsules
- Qudexy XR Capsules mg
- Qudexy XR Capsules 400 mg
- Qudexy XR Capsules dosage
- Qudexy XR Capsules drug
- Qudexy XR Capsules action
- Qudexy XR Capsules effects of
- Qudexy XR Capsules adverse effects
- Qudexy XR Capsules the effects of
- Qudexy XR Capsules 25 mg
Dosage Forms and Strengths
QUDEXY XR (topiramate) extended-release capsules are available in the following strengths and colors:
- 25 mg: light pink and grey capsules, printed with "UPSHER-SMITH" on the cap in black ink and "25 mg" on the body in black ink
- 50 mg: golden yellow and grey capsules, printed with "UPSHER-SMITH" on the cap in black ink and "50 mg" on the body in black ink
- 100 mg: reddish brown and grey capsules, printed with "UPSHER-SMITH" on the cap in black ink and "100 mg" on the body in black ink
- 150 mg: pale yellow and grey capsules, printed with "UPSHER-SMITH" on the cap in black ink and "150 mg" on the body in black ink
- 200 mg: brown and grey capsules, printed with "UPSHER-SMITH" on the cap in white ink and "200 mg" on the body in black ink
Warnings and Precautions
Acute Myopia and Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma
A syndrome consisting of acute myopia associated with secondary angle closure glaucoma has been reported in patients receiving topiramate. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity and/or ocular pain. Ophthalmologic findings can include myopia, anterior chamber shallowing, ocular hyperemia (redness) and increased intraocular pressure. Mydriasis may or may not be present. This syndrome may be associated with supraciliary effusion resulting in anterior displacement of the lens and iris, with secondary angle closure glaucoma. Symptoms typically occur within 1 month of initiating topiramate therapy. In contrast to primary narrow angle glaucoma, which is rare under 40 years of age, secondary angle closure glaucoma associated with topiramate has been reported in pediatric patients as well as adults. The primary treatment to reverse symptoms is discontinuation of QUDEXY XR as rapidly as possible, according to the judgment of the treating physician. Other measures, in conjunction with discontinuation of QUDEXY XR, may be helpful.
Elevated intraocular pressure of any etiology, if left untreated, can lead to serious sequelae including permanent vision loss.
Visual Field Defects
Visual field defects have been reported in patients receiving topiramate independent of elevated intraocular pressure. In clinical trials, most of these events were reversible after topiramate discontinuation. If visual problems occur at any time during treatment with QUDEXY XR, consideration should be given to discontinuing the drug.
Oligohydrosis and Hyperthermia
Oligohydrosis (decreased sweating), resulting in hospitalization in some cases, has been reported in association with topiramate use. Decreased sweating and an elevation in body temperature above normal characterized these cases. Some of the cases were reported after exposure to elevated environmental temperatures.
The majority of the reports have been in pediatric patients. Patients, especially pediatric patients, treated with QUDEXY XR should be monitored closely for evidence of decreased sweating and increased body temperature, especially in hot weather. Caution should be used when QUDEXY XR is prescribed with other drugs that predispose patients to heat-related disorders; these drugs include, but are not limited to, other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and drugs with anticholinergic activity [see Drug Interactions (7.4)].
Hyperchloremic, non-anion gap, metabolic acidosis (i.e., decreased serum bicarbonate below the normal reference range in the absence of chronic respiratory alkalosis) is associated with topiramate treatment. This metabolic acidosis is caused by renal bicarbonate loss due to the inhibitory effect of topiramate on carbonic anhydrase. Such electrolyte imbalance has been observed with the use of topiramate in placebo-controlled clinical trials and in the post-marketing period. Generally, topiramate-induced metabolic acidosis occurs early in treatment although cases can occur at any time during treatment. Bicarbonate decrements are usually mild-moderate (average decrease of 4 mEq/L at daily doses of 400 mg in adults and at approximately 6 mg/kg/day in pediatric patients); rarely, patients can experience severe decrements to values below 10 mEq/L. Conditions or therapies that predispose patients to acidosis (such as renal disease, severe respiratory disorders, status epilepticus, diarrhea, ketogenic diet or specific drugs) may be additive to the bicarbonate lowering effects of topiramate.
Manifestations of Metabolic Acidosis
Some manifestations of acute or chronic metabolic acidosis may include hyperventilation, nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue and anorexia, or more severe sequelae including cardiac arrhythmias or stupor. Chronic, untreated metabolic acidosis may increase the risk for nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis, and may also result in osteomalacia (referred to as rickets in pediatric patients) and/or osteoporosis with an increased risk for fractures. Chronic metabolic acidosis in pediatric patients may also reduce growth rates. A reduction in growth rate may eventually decrease the maximal height achieved. The effect of topiramate on growth and bone-related sequelae has not been systematically investigated in long-term, placebo-controlled trials. Long-term, open-label treatment of infants/toddlers, with intractable partial epilepsy, for up to 1 year, showed reductions from baseline in Z SCORES for length, weight, and head circumference compared to age and sex-matched normative data, although these patients are likely to have different growth rates than normal infants. Reductions in Z SCORES for length and weight were correlated to the degree of acidosis [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Topiramate treatment that causes metabolic acidosis during pregnancy can possibly produce adverse effects on the fetus and might also cause metabolic acidosis in the neonate from possible transfer of topiramate to the fetus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
In adults, the incidence of persistent decreases in serum bicarbonate (levels of less than 20 mEq/L at two consecutive visits or at the final visit) in controlled clinical trials for adjunctive treatment of epilepsy was 32% for 400 mg per day, and 1% for placebo. Metabolic acidosis has been observed at doses as low as 50 mg per day. The incidence of a markedly abnormally low serum bicarbonate (i.e., absolute value less than 17 mEq/L and greater than 5 mEq/L decrease from pretreatment) in the adjunctive therapy trials was 3% for 400 mg per day and 0% for placebo. The incidence of persistent decreases in serum bicarbonate in adult patients (≥16 years of age) in the epilepsy controlled clinical trial for monotherapy was 14% for 50 mg per day and 25% for 400 mg per day. The incidence of a markedly abnormally low serum bicarbonate (i.e., absolute value less than 17 mEq/L and greater than 5 mEq/L decrease from pretreatment) in this trial for adults was 1% for 50 mg per day and 6% for 400 mg per day. Serum bicarbonate levels have not been systematically evaluated at daily doses greater than 400 mg per day.
Pediatric Patients (2 years to 16 years of age)
The incidence of persistent decreases in serum bicarbonate in placebo-controlled trials for adjunctive treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or refractory partial onset seizures in patients age 2 years to 16 years was 67% for topiramate (at approximately 6 mg/kg/day), and 10% for placebo. The incidence of a markedly abnormally low serum bicarbonate (i.e., absolute value less than 17 mEq/L and greater than 5 mEq/L decrease from pretreatment) in these trials was 11% for topiramate and 0% for placebo. Cases of moderately severe metabolic acidosis have been reported in patients as young as 5 months old, especially at daily doses above 5 mg/kg/day.
In pediatric patients (6 years to 15 years of age), the incidence of persistent decreases in serum bicarbonate in the epilepsy controlled clinical trial for monotherapy performed with topiramate was 9% for 50 mg per day and 25% for 400 mg per day. The incidence of a markedly abnormally low serum bicarbonate (i.e., absolute value less than 17 mEq/L and greater than 5 mEq/L decrease from pretreatment) in this trial was 1% for 50 mg per day and 6% for 400 mg per day.
Pediatric Patients (under 2 years of age)
Although QUDEXY XR is not approved for use in patients less than 2 years of age, a study of topiramate as adjunctive use in patients under 2 years of age with partial onset seizures revealed that topiramate produced a metabolic acidosis that is notably greater in magnitude than that observed in controlled trials in older children and adults. The mean treatment difference (25 mg/kg/day topiramate-placebo) was -5.9 mEq/L for bicarbonate. The incidence of metabolic acidosis (defined by a serum bicarbonate less than 20 mEq/L) was 0% for placebo, 30% for 5 mg/kg/day, 50% for 15 mg/kg/day, and 45% for 25 mg/kg/day. The incidence of markedly abnormal changes (i.e., less than 17 mEq/L and greater than 5 mEq/L decrease from baseline of greater than or equal to 20 mEq/L) was 0% for placebo, 4% for 5 mg/kg/day, 5% for 15 mg/kg/day and 5% for 25 mg/kg/day [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
The incidence of persistent decreases in serum bicarbonate in placebo-controlled trials in adults for the prophylaxis of migraine was 44% for 200 mg/day, 39% for 100 mg/day, 23% for 50 mg/day, and 7% for placebo. The incidence of markedly abnormally low serum bicarbonate (i.e., absolute value less than 17 mEq/L and greater than 5 mEq/L decrease from pretreatment) in these trials was 11% for 200 mg/day, 9% for 100 mg/day, 2% for 50 mg/day, and <1% for placebo.
In pooled, double-blind migraine prophylaxis studies in adolescent patients (12 to 17 years of age), the incidence of persistent decreases in serum bicarbonate was 77% for 200 mg/day, 27% for 100 mg/day, 30% for 50 mg/day, and 9% for placebo. The incidence of markedly low serum bicarbonate (i.e., absolute value <17 mEq/L and >5 mEq/L decrease from pretreatment) was 6% for 100 mg/day, 2% for 50 mg/day, and 2% for placebo. This bicarbonate criterion was not met by any patients in the 200 mg/day group, which had a low number of subjects (n=13).
Measurement of Serum Bicarbonate in Epilepsy and Migraine Patients
Measurement of baseline and periodic serum bicarbonate during topiramate treatment is recommended. If metabolic acidosis develops and persists, consideration should be given to reducing the dose or discontinuing topiramate (using dose tapering). If the decision is made to continue patients on topiramate in the face of persistent acidosis, alkali treatment should be considered.
Suicidal Behavior and Ideation
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED, including QUDEXY XR, for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.
Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.
The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5 to 100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed.
Table 4 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.
|Indication||Placebo Patients with Events per 1,000 Patients||Drug Patients with Events per 1,000 Patients||Relative Risk: Incidence of Events in Drug Patients/ Incidence in Placebo Patients||Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events per 1,000 Patients|
The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.
Anyone considering prescribing QUDEXY XR or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.
Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers.
Cognitive/Neuropsychiatric Adverse Reactions
Adverse reactions most often associated with the use of topiramate, and therefore expected to be associated with the use of QUDEXY XR, were related to the central nervous system and were observed in both the epilepsy and migraine populations. In adults, the most frequent of these can be classified into three general categories: 1) Cognitive-related dysfunction (e.g. confusion, psychomotor slowing, difficulty with concentration/attention, difficulty with memory, speech or language problems, particularly word-finding difficulties), 2) Psychiatric/behavioral disturbances (e.g. depression or mood problems), and 3) Somnolence or fatigue.
Cognitive Related Dysfunction
The majority of cognitive-related adverse reactions were mild to moderate in severity, and they frequently occurred in isolation. Rapid titration rate and higher initial dose were associated with higher incidences of these reactions. Many of these reactions contributed to withdrawal from treatment [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
In the adjunctive epilepsy controlled trials conducted with topiramate (using rapid titration such as 100 mg per day to 200 mg per day weekly increments), the proportion of patients who experienced one or more cognitive-related adverse reactions was 42% for 200 mg per day, 41% for 400 mg per day, 52% for 600 mg per day, 56% for 800 and 1,000 mg per day, and 14% for placebo. These dose-related adverse reactions began with a similar frequency in the titration or in the maintenance phase, although in some patients the events began during titration and persisted into the maintenance phase. Some patients who experienced one or more cognitive-related adverse reactions in the titration phase had a dose-related recurrence of these reactions in the maintenance phase.
In the monotherapy epilepsy controlled trial conducted with topiramate, the proportion of patients who experienced one or more cognitive-related adverse reactions was 19% for topiramate 50 mg per day and 26% for 400 mg per day.
In the 6-month migraine prophylaxis controlled trials using a slower titration regimen (25 mg/day weekly increments), the proportion of patients who experienced one or more cognitive-related adverse reactions was 19% for topiramate 50 mg/day, 22% for 100 mg/day (the recommended dose), 28% for 200 mg/day, and 10% for placebo. These dose-related adverse reactions typically began in the titration phase and often persisted into the maintenance phase, but infrequently began in the maintenance phase. Some patients experienced a recurrence of one or more of these cognitive adverse reactions and this recurrence was typically in the titration phase. A relatively small proportion of topiramate-treated patients experienced more than one concurrent cognitive adverse reaction. The most common cognitive adverse reactions occurring together included difficulty with memory along with difficulty with concentration/attention, difficulty with memory along with language problems, and difficulty with concentration/attention along with language problems. Rarely, topiramate-treated patients experienced three concurrent cognitive reactions.
Psychiatric/behavioral disturbances (depression or mood) were dose-related for both the epilepsy and migraine populations treated with topiramate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Somnolence and fatigue were the adverse reactions most frequently reported during clinical trials of topiramate for adjunctive epilepsy. For the adjunctive epilepsy population, the incidence of somnolence did not differ substantially between 200 mg per day and 1,000 mg per day, but the incidence of fatigue was dose-related and increased at dosages above 400 mg per day. For the monotherapy epilepsy population in the 50 mg per day and 400 mg per day groups, the incidence of somnolence was dose-related (9% for the 50 mg per day group and 15% for the 400 mg per day group) and the incidence of fatigue was comparable in both treatment groups (14% each). For the migraine population, somnolence and fatigue were dose-related and more common in the titration phase.
Additional nonspecific CNS events commonly observed with topiramate in the adjunctive epilepsy population include dizziness or ataxia.
In double-blind adjunctive therapy and monotherapy epilepsy clinical studies conducted with topiramate, the incidences of cognitive/neuropsychiatric adverse reactions in pediatric patients were generally lower than observed in adults. These reactions included psychomotor slowing, difficulty with concentration/attention, speech disorders/related speech problems and language problems. The most frequently reported neuropsychiatric reactions in pediatric patients during adjunctive therapy double-blind studies were somnolence and fatigue. The most frequently reported neuropsychiatric reactions in pediatric patients in the 50 mg per day and 400 mg per day groups during the monotherapy double-blind study were headache, dizziness, anorexia, and somnolence.
No patients discontinued treatment due to any adverse reactions in the adjunctive epilepsy double-blind trials. In the monotherapy epilepsy double-blind trial conducted with immediate-release topiramate product, 1 pediatric patient (2%) in the 50 mg per day group and 7 pediatric patients (12%) in the 400 mg per day group discontinued treatment due to any adverse reactions. The most common adverse reaction associated with discontinuation of therapy was difficulty with concentration/attention; all occurred in the 400 mg per day group.
The incidence of cognitive adverse reactions was increased in topiramate-treated patients (7%) versus placebo (4%) in pooled, double-blind placebo-controlled studies in which adolescent patients (12 to 17 years) were randomized to placebo or one of several fixed daily doses of topiramate (50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg).
The incidence of cognitive adverse reactions was also increased in a placebo-controlled study of pediatric patients (6 to 16 years) treated with 2 to 3 mg/kg/day of topiramate (10%) versus placebo treatment (2%). QUDEXY XR is not approved for prophylaxis of migraine in pediatric patients under 12 years of age.
The risk for cognitive adverse reactions was dose-dependent, and was particularly evident at the 200 mg dose. This risk for cognitive adverse reactions was also greater in younger patients (6 to 11 years) than in older patients (12 to 17 years). The most common cognitive adverse reaction in these trials was difficulty with concentration/attention. Cognitive adverse reactions most commonly developed in the titration period and sometimes persisted into the maintenance period. These adverse reactions typically occurred in isolation as single type of cognitive adverse reaction. Cognitive adverse reactions that led to study discontinuation occurred in one patient (difficulty with concentration/attention and language problems). The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) was administered to adolescents (12 to 17 years) to assess the effects of topiramate on cognitive function at baseline and at the end of the Study 3 [see Clinical Studies (14.7)]. Mean change from baseline in certain CANTAB tests suggests that topiramate treatment may result in psychomotor slowing and decreased verbal fluency.
Topiramate can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Data from pregnancy registries indicate that infants exposed to topiramate in utero have an increased risk for cleft lip and/or cleft palate (oral clefts) and for being small for gestational age. In multiple species, oral administration of topiramate to pregnant animals at clinically relevant doses resulted in structural malformations, including craniofacial defects, and reduced body weights in offspring [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Consider the benefits and risks of QUDEXY XR when administering the drug in women of childbearing potential, particularly when QUDEXY XR is considered for a condition not usually associated with permanent injury or death [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. QUDEXY XR should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be informed of the potential hazard to a fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Withdrawal of Antiepileptic Drugs
In patients with or without a history of seizures or epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs including QUDEXY XR, should be gradually withdrawn to minimize the potential for seizures or increased seizure frequency [see Clinical Studies (14)]. In situations where rapid withdrawal of QUDEXY XR is medically required, appropriate monitoring is recommended.
Hyperammonemia and Encephalopathy
Hyperammonemia/Encephalopathy Without Concomitant Valproic Acid (VPA)
Topiramate treatment has produced hyperammonemia (in some instances dose-related) in a clinical investigational program in adolescent patients (12 to 17 years) who were treated with topiramate for migraine prophylaxis. The incidence of hyperammonemia (above the upper limit of normal reference) at any time in the trial was 9% for placebo, 14% for 50 mg, and 26% for 100 mg topiramate daily. In some patients, hyperammonemia was observed at the end of the trial at the final visit. The incidence of markedly increased hyperammonemia (at least 50% or higher above upper limit of normal) at any time in the trial in adolescent patients was also increased at 100 mg/day (9%) compared to 50 mg topiramate (0%) or placebo (3%). During this trial, markedly increased ammonia levels returned to normal in all but one patient (in whom the ammonia level fell to high instead of markedly abnormal).
Topiramate treatment has produced hyperammonemia in a clinical investigational program in very young pediatric patients (1 month to 24 months) who were treated with adjunctive topiramate for partial onset epilepsy (8% for placebo, 10% for 5 mg/kg/day, 0% for 15 mg/kg/day, 9% for 25 mg/kg/day). QUDEXY XR is not approved as adjunctive treatment of partial onset seizures in pediatric patients less than 2 years old. In some patients, ammonia was markedly increased (greater than 50% above upper limit of normal). The hyperammonemia associated with topiramate treatment occurred with and without encephalopathy in placebo-controlled trials, and in an open-label, extension trial of infants with refractory epilepsy. Dose-related hyperammonemia was also observed in the extension trial in pediatric patients up to 2 years old. Clinical symptoms of hyperammonemic encephalopathy often include acute alterations in level of consciousness and/or cognitive function with lethargy or vomiting.
Hyperammonemia with and without encephalopathy has also been observed in post-marketing reports in patients who were taking topiramate without concomitant valproic acid (VPA).
Hyperammonemia/Encephalopathy With Concomitant Valproic Acid (VPA)
Concomitant administration of topiramate and valproic acid (VPA) has been associated with hyperammonemia with or without encephalopathy in patients who have tolerated either drug alone based upon post-marketing reports. Although hyperammonemia may be asymptomatic, clinical symptoms of hyperammonemic encephalopathy often include acute alterations in level of consciousness and/or cognitive function with lethargy or vomiting. In most cases, symptoms and signs abated with discontinuation of either drug. This adverse reaction is not due to a pharmacokinetic interaction.
Although QUDEXY XR is not indicated for use in infants/toddlers (1 month to 24 months), topiramate with concomitant VPA clearly produced a dose-related increase in the incidence of hyperammonemia (above the upper limit of normal, 0% for placebo, 12% for 5 mg/kg/day, 7% for 15 mg/kg/day, 17% for 25 mg/kg/day) in an investigational program using topiramate. Markedly increased, dose-related hyperammonemia (0% for placebo and 5 mg/kg/day, 7% for 15 mg/kg/day, and 8% for 25 mg/kg/day) also occurred in these infants/toddlers. Dose-related hyperammonemia was similarly observed in a long-term, extension trial utilizing topiramate in these very young, pediatric patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Hyperammonemia with and without encephalopathy has also been observed in post-marketing reports in patients taking topiramate with valproic acid (VPA).
The hyperammonemia associated with topiramate treatment appears to be more common when used concomitantly with VPA.
Monitoring for Hyperammonemia
Patients with inborn errors of metabolism or reduced hepatic mitochondrial activity may be at an increased risk for hyperammonemia with or without encephalopathy. Although not studied, topiramate or QUDEXY XR treatment or an interaction of concomitant topiramate-based product and valproic acid treatment may exacerbate existing defects or unmask deficiencies in susceptible persons.
In patients who develop unexplained lethargy, vomiting, or changes in mental status associated with any topiramate treatment, hyperammonemic encephalopathy should be considered and an ammonia level should be measured.
A total of 32/2086 (1.5%) of adults exposed to topiramate during its adjunctive epilepsy therapy development reported the occurrence of kidney stones, an incidence about 2 to 4 times greater than expected in a similar, untreated population. In the double-blind monotherapy epilepsy study, a total of 4/319 (1.3%) of adults exposed to topiramate reported the occurrence of kidney stones. As in the general population, the incidence of stone formation among topiramate-treated patients was higher in men. Kidney stones have also been reported in pediatric patients taking topiramate for epilepsy or migraine.
During long-term (up to 1 year) topiramate treatment in an open-label extension study of 284 pediatric patients 1 month to 24 months old with epilepsy, 7% developed kidney or bladder stones that were diagnosed clinically or by sonogram. QUDEXY XR is not approved for pediatric patients less than 2 years old [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Kidney stones have also been reported in pediatric patients taking topiramate for migraine prophylaxis. For the double-blind migraine prophylaxis studies, one adverse event (renal calculus) occurred in a topiramate-treated subject in the age 12 to 17 years group. The overall experience with open-label, long-term, topiramate treatment for migraine prophylaxis is limited in pediatric patients.
QUDEXY XR would be expected to have the same effect as topiramate on the formation of kidney stones. An explanation for the association of topiramate and kidney stones may lay in the fact that topiramate is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide) can promote stone formation by reducing urinary citrate excretion and by increasing urinary pH [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Drug Interactions (7.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The concomitant use of QUDEXY XR with any other drug producing metabolic acidosis, or potentially in patients on a ketogenic diet, may create a physiological environment that increases the risk of kidney stone formation, and should therefore be avoided.
Increased fluid intake increases the urinary output, lowering the concentration of substances involved in stone formation. Hydration is recommended to reduce new stone formation.
Hypothermia with Concomitant Valproic Acid Use
Hypothermia, defined as an unintentional drop in body core temperature to less than 35ºC (95ºF) has been reported in association with topiramate use with concomitant valproic acid (VPA) both in the presence and in the absence of hyperammonemia. This adverse reaction in patients using concomitant topiramate and valproate can occur after starting topiramate treatment or after increasing the daily dose of topiramate [see Drug Interactions (7.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Consideration should be given to stopping topiramate or valproate in patients who develop hypothermia, which may be manifested by a variety of clinical abnormalities including lethargy, confusion, coma, and significant alterations in other major organ systems such as the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Clinical management and assessment should include examination of blood ammonia levels.
Paresthesia (usually tingling of the extremities), an effect associated with the use of other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, appears to be a common effect of topiramate in adult and pediatric patients. Paresthesia was more frequently reported in the monotherapy epilepsy trials and migraine prophylaxis trials conducted with immediate-release topiramate than in the adjunctive therapy epilepsy trials conducted with the same product. In the majority of instances, paresthesia did not lead to treatment discontinuation [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Interaction with Other CNS Depressants
Topiramate is a CNS depressant. Concomitant administration of topiramate with other CNS depressant drugs or alcohol can result in significant CNS depression. Patients should be watched carefully when QUDEXY XR is co-administered with other CNS depressant drugs [see Drug Interactions (7.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Drug Abuse and Dependence
QUDEXY XR (topiramate) extended-release capsule is not a controlled substance.
The abuse and dependence potential of QUDEXY XR has not been evaluated in human studies.
QUDEXY XR has not been systematically studied in animals or humans for its potential for tolerance or physical dependence.
Qudexy XR Capsules Description
Topiramate, USP, is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide. QUDEXY XR (topiramate) extended-release capsules are available as 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg capsules for oral administration as whole capsules or opened and sprinkled onto a spoonful of soft food.
Topiramate is a white to off-white powder. Topiramate is freely soluble in polar organic solvents such as acetonitrile and acetone; and very slightly soluble to practically insoluble in non-polar organic solvents such as hexanes. Topiramate has the molecular formula C12H21NO8S and a molecular weight of 339.4. Topiramate is designated chemically as 2,3:4,5-Di-O-isopropylidene-β-D-fructopyranose sulfamate and has the following structural formula:
QUDEXY XR (topiramate) extended-release capsules contain beads of topiramate in a capsule. The inactive ingredients are microcrystalline cellulose, hypromellose 2910, ethylcellulose, diethyl phthalate.
In addition, the capsule shells for all strengths contain hypromellose 2910, titanium dioxide, black iron oxide, red iron oxide and/or yellow iron oxide, black pharmaceutical ink, and white pharmaceutical ink (200 mg only).
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 25 mg Capsule Bottle Label
(topiramate) extended-release capsules
PHARMACIST: Dispense the
Medication Guide provided
separately to each patient.