Quinine Sulfate Capsules
Name: Quinine Sulfate Capsules
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules mg
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules drug
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules uses
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules adverse effects
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules 324 mg
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules 648 mg
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules dosage
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules oral dose
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules action
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules effects of
- Quinine Sulfate Capsules the effects of
Dosage Forms And Strengths
324 mg capsules -hard gelatin, clear cap/clear body, imprinted with 'AR 102'
Storage And Handling
QUALAQUIN capsules USP, 324 mg are available as clear/clear capsules imprinted AR 102:
Bottles of 30 NDC 49708-153-07Storage
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
[See USP Controlled Room Temperature]
Dispense in a tight container as defined in the USP.
Manufactured by: Mutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc. Philadelphia, PA 19124. Distributed by: Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd. Detroit, MI 48202. Rev, July 2014
Quinine can adversely affect almost every body system. The most common adverse events associated with quinine use are a cluster of symptoms called “cinchonism”, which occurs to some degree in almost all patients taking quinine. Symptoms of mild cinchonism include headache, vasodilation and sweating, nausea, tinnitus, hearing impairment, vertigo or dizziness, blurred vision, and disturbance in color perception. More severe symptoms of cinchonism are vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, deafness, blindness, and disturbances in cardiac rhythm or conduction. Most symptoms of cinchonism are reversible and resolve with discontinuation of quinine.
The following ADVERSE REACTIONS have been reported with quinine sulfate. Because these reactions have been reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
General: fever, chills, sweating, flushing, asthenia, lupus-like syndrome, and hypersensitivity reactions.
Hematologic: agranulocytosis, hypoprothrombinemia, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia; hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, petechiae, ecchymosis, hemorrhage, coagulopathy, blackwater fever, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, and lupus anticoagulant.
Neuropsychiatric: headache, diplopia, confusion, altered mental status, seizures, coma, disorientation, tremors, restlessness, ataxia, acute dystonic reaction, aphasia, and suicide.
Dermatologic: cutaneous rashes, including urticarial, papular, or scarlatinal rashes, pruritus, bullous dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fixed drug eruption, photosensitivity reactions, allergic contact dermatitis, acral necrosis, and cutaneous vasculitis.
Respiratory: asthma, dyspnea, pulmonary edema.
Cardiovascular: chest pain, vasodilatation, hypotension, postural hypotension, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, syncope, atrioventricular block, atrial fibrillation, irregular rhythm, unifocal premature ventricular contractions, nodal escape beats, U waves, QT prolongation, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, torsades de pointes, and cardiac arrest.
Gastrointestinal: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, gastric irritation, and esophagitis.
Hepatobiliary: granulomatous hepatitis, hepatitis, jaundice, and abnormal liver function tests.
Metabolic: hypoglycemia and anorexia.
Musculoskeletal: myalgias and muscle weakness.
Renal: hemoglobinuria, renal failure, renal impairment, and acute interstitial nephritis.
Special Senses: visual disturbances, including blurred vision with scotomata, sudden loss of vision, photophobia, diplopia, night blindness, diminished visual fields, fixed pupillary dilatation, disturbed color vision, optic neuritis, blindness, vertigo, tinnitus, hearing impairment, and deafness.
What should i avoid while taking quinine (qualaquin)?
Avoid taking other anti-malaria medications without your doctor's advice. This includes chloroquine (Arelan), halofantrine (Halfan), and mefloquine (Lariam).
Avoid using antacids without your doctor's advice. Use only the type of antacid your doctor recommends. Some antacids can make it harder for your body to absorb quinine.
Quinine may cause blurred vision and may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert and able to see clearly.
Do not use quinine to treat any medical condition if your doctor did not prescribe quinine for that condition. Do not purchase quinine on the Internet or from vendors outside of the United States.
Where can i get more information?
Your pharmacist can provide more information about quinine.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
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Indications and Usage for Quinine Sulfate Capsules
Quinine Sulfate, USP is an antimalarial drug indicated only for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Quinine sulfate has been shown to be effective in geographical regions where resistance to chloroquine has been documented [see Clinical Studies (14)].
Quinine Sulfate oral capsules are not approved for:
- Treatment of severe or complicated P. falciparum malaria.
- Prevention of malaria.
- Treatment or prevention of nocturnal leg cramps [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Warnings and Precautions
Use of Quinine Sulfate Capsules for Treatment or Prevention of Nocturnal Leg Cramps
Quinine Sulfate Capsules may cause unpredictable serious and life-threatening hematologic reactions including thrombocytopenia and hemolytic-uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (HUS/TTP) in addition to hypersensitivity reactions, QT prolongation, serious cardiac arrhythmias including torsades de pointes, and other serious adverse events requiring medical intervention and hospitalization. Chronic renal impairment associated with the development of TTP, and fatalities have also been reported. The risk associated with the use of Quinine Sulfate Capsules in the absence of evidence of its effectiveness for treatment or prevention of nocturnal leg cramps, outweighs any potential benefit in treating and/or preventing this benign, self-limiting condition [see Boxed Warning and Contraindications (4)].
Quinine-induced thrombocytopenia is an immune-mediated disorder. Severe cases of thrombocytopenia that are fatal or life threatening have been reported, including cases of HUS/TTP. Chronic renal impairment associated with the development of TTP has also been reported. Thrombocytopenia usually resolves within a week upon discontinuation of quinine. If quinine is not stopped, a patient is at risk for fatal hemorrhage. Upon re-exposure to quinine from any source, a patient with quinine-dependent antibodies could develop thrombocytopenia that is more rapid in onset and more severe than the original episode.
QT Prolongation and Ventricular Arrhythmias
QT interval prolongation has been a consistent finding in studies which evaluated electrocardiographic changes with oral or parenteral quinine administration, regardless of age, clinical status, or severity of disease. The maximum increase in QT interval has been shown to correspond with peak quinine plasma concentration [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. Quinine Sulfate has been rarely associated with potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes, and ventricular fibrillation.
Quinine Sulfate has been shown to cause concentration-dependent prolongation of the PR and QRS interval. At particular risk are patients with underlying structural heart disease and preexisting conduction system abnormalities, elderly patients with sick sinus syndrome, patients with atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response, patients with myocardial ischemia or patients receiving drugs known to prolong the PR interval (e.g., verapamil) or QRS interval (e.g., flecainide or quinidine) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Quinine Sulfate is not recommended for use with other drugs known to cause QT prolongation, including Class IA antiarrhythmic agents (e.g., quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide), and Class III antiarrhythmic agents (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol, dofetilide).
The use of macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin should be avoided in patients receiving Quinine Sulfate. Fatal torsades de pointes was reported in an elderly patient who received concomitant quinine, erythromycin, and dopamine. Although a causal relationship between a specific drug and the arrhythmia was not established in this case, erythromycin is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and has been shown to increase quinine plasma levels when used concomitantly. A related macrolide antibiotic, troleandomycin, has also been shown to increase quinine exposure in a pharmacokinetic study [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Quinine may inhibit the metabolism of certain drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates and are known to cause QT prolongation, e.g., astemizole, cisapride, terfenadine, pimozide, halofantrine and quinidine. Torsades de pointes has been reported in patients who received concomitant quinine and astemizole. Therefore, concurrent use of Quinine Sulfate with these medications, or drugs with similar properties, should be avoided [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
Concomitant administration of Quinine Sulfate with the antimalarial drugs, mefloquine or halofantrine, may result in electrocardiographic abnormalities, including QT prolongation, and increase the risk for torsades de pointes or other serious ventricular arrhythmias. Concurrent use of Quinine Sulfate and mefloquine may also increase the risk of seizures [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
Quinine Sulfate should also be avoided in patients with known prolongation of QT interval and in patients with clinical conditions known to prolong the QT interval, such as uncorrected hypokalemia, bradycardia, and certain cardiac conditions [see Contraindications (4)].
Concomitant Use of Rifampin
Treatment failures may result from the concurrent use of rifampin with Quinine Sulfate, due to decreased plasma concentrations of quinine, and concomitant use of these medications should be avoided [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Concomitant Use of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
The use of neuromuscular blocking agents should be avoided in patients receiving Quinine Sulfate. In one patient who received pancuronium during an operative procedure, subsequent administration of quinine resulted in respiratory depression and apnea. Although there are no clinical reports with succinylcholine or tubocurarine, quinine may also potentiate neuromuscular blockade when used with these drugs [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
Serious hypersensitivity reactions reported with quinine sulfate include anaphylactic shock, anaphylactoid reactions, urticaria, serious skin rashes, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, angioedema, facial edema, bronchospasm, and pruritus.
A number of other serious adverse reactions reported with quinine, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), thrombocytopenia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), blackwater fever, disseminated intravascular coagulation, leukopenia, neutropenia, granulomatous hepatitis, and acute interstitial nephritis may also be due to hypersensitivity reactions.
Quinine Sulfate should be discontinued in case of any signs or symptoms of hypersensitivity [see Contraindications (4)].
Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter
Quinine Sulfate should be used with caution in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. A paradoxical increase in ventricular response rate may occur with quinine, similar to that observed with quinidine. If digoxin is used to prevent a rapid ventricular response, serum digoxin levels should be closely monitored, because digoxin levels may be increased with use of quinine [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
Quinine stimulates release of insulin from the pancreas, and patients, especially pregnant women, may experience clinically significant hypoglycemia.
Quinine Sulfate Capsules Description
Quinine Sulfate is a cinchona alkaloid chemically described as cinchonan-9-ol, 6’-methoxy-, (8α, 9R)-, sulfate (2:1) (salt), dihydrate with a molecular formula of (C20H24N2O2)2•H2SO4•2H2O and a molecular weight of 782.96.
The structural formula of quinine sulfate is:
Quinine sulfate occurs as a white, crystalline powder that darkens on exposure to light. It is odorless and has a persistent very bitter taste. It is only slightly soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, and ether.
Quinine sulfate is supplied for oral administration as capsules containing 324 mg of the active ingredient quinine sulfate USP, equivalent to 269 mg free base. Inactive ingredients: Pregelatinized starch, colloidal silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate. The capsule shell contains gelatin and titanium dioxide and are imprinted with black ink.
Mechanism of Action
Quinine is an antimalarial agent [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].
QTc interval prolongation was studied in a double-blind, multiple dose, placebo- and positive-controlled crossover study in young (N=13, 20 to 39 years) and elderly (N=13, 65 to 78 years) subjects. After 7 days of dosing with quinine sulfate 648 mg three times daily, the maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) differences in QTcI from placebo after baseline correction was 27.7 (32.2) ms.
Prolongation of the PR and QRS interval was also noted in subjects receiving quinine sulfate. The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference in PR from placebo after baseline-correction was 14.5 (18.0) ms. The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference in QRS from placebo after baseline-correction was 11.5 (13.3) ms. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
The oral bioavailability of quinine is 76 to 88% in healthy adults. Quinine exposure is higher in patients with malaria than in healthy subjects. After a single oral dose of quinine sulfate, the mean quinine Tmax was longer, and mean AUC and Cmax were higher in patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria than in healthy subjects, as shown in Table 1 below.
|* Quinine Sulfate dose was 648 mg (approximately 8.7 mg/kg) in healthy subjects; and 10 mg/kg in patients with malaria.|
|Pharmacokinetic Parameter of Quinine in Healthy Subjects and Patients with |
Uncomplicated P. falciparum Malaria after a Single Dose* of Oral Quinine
|Healthy Subjects |
Mean ± SD
|Uncomplicated P. falciparum Malaria Patients |
Mean ± SD
|Tmax (h)||2.8 ± 0.8||5.9 ± 4.7|
|Cmax (mcg/mL)||3.2 ± 0.7||8.4|
Quinine Sulfate Capsules may be administered without regard to meals. When a single oral 324 mg capsule of Quinine Sulfate was administered to healthy subjects (N=26) with a standardized high-fat breakfast, the mean Tmax of quinine was prolonged to about 4.0 hours, but the mean Cmax and AUC0-24h were similar to those achieved when Quinine Sulfate capsule was given under fasted conditions [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
In patients with malaria, the volume of distribution (Vd/F) decreases in proportion to the severity of the infection. In published studies with healthy subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of quinine sulfate, the mean Vd/F ranged from 2.5 to 7.1 L/kg.
Quinine is moderately protein-bound in blood in healthy subjects, ranging from 69 to 92%. During active malarial infection, protein binding of quinine is increased to 78 to 95%, corresponding to the increase in α1-acid glycoprotein that occurs with malaria infection.
Intra-erythrocytic levels of quinine are approximately 30 to 50% of the plasma concentration.
Quinine penetrates relatively poorly into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with cerebral malaria, with CSF concentration approximately 2 to 7% of plasma concentration.
In one study, quinine concentrations in placental cord blood and breast milk were approximately 32% and 31%, respectively, of quinine concentrations in maternal plasma. The estimated total dose of quinine secreted into breast milk was less than 2 to 3 mg per day [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].
Quinine is metabolized almost exclusively via hepatic oxidative cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways, resulting in four primary metabolites, 3-hydroxyquinine, 2´-quinone, O-desmethylquinine, and 10,11-dihydroxydihydroquinine. Six secondary metabolites result from further biotransformation of the primary metabolites. The major metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine, is less active than the parent drug.
In vitro studies using human liver microsomes and recombinant P450 enzymes have shown that quinine is metabolized mainly by CYP3A4. Depending on the in vitro experimental conditions, other enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 were shown to have some role in the metabolism of quinine.
Quinine is eliminated primarily via hepatic biotransformation. Approximately 20% of quinine is excreted unchanged in urine. Because quinine is reabsorbed when the urine is alkaline, renal excretion of the drug is twice as rapid when the urine is acidic than when it is alkaline.
In various published studies, healthy subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of quinine sulfate exhibited a mean plasma clearance ranging from 0.08 to 0.47 L/h/kg (median value: 0.17 L/h/kg) with a mean plasma elimination half-life of 9.7 to 12.5 hours.
In 15 patients with uncomplicated malaria who received a 10 mg/kg oral dose of quinine sulfate, the mean total clearance of quinine was slower (approximately 0.09 L/h/kg) during the acute phase of the infection, and faster (approximately 0.16 L/h/kg) during the recovery or convalescent phase.
Extracorporeal Elimination: Administration of multiple-dose activated charcoal (50 grams administered 4 hours after quinine dosing followed by 3 further doses over the next 12 hours) decreased the mean quinine elimination half-life from 8.2 to 4.6 hours, and increased the mean quinine clearance by 56% (from 11.8 L/h to 18.4 L/h) in 7 healthy adult subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of quinine sulfate. Likewise, in 5 symptomatic patients with acute quinine poisoning who received multiple-dose activated charcoal (50 grams every 4 hours), the mean quinine elimination half-life was shortened to 8.1 hours in comparison to a half-life of approximately 26 hours in patients who did not receive activated charcoal [see Overdosage (10)].
In 6 patients with quinine poisoning, forced acid diuresis did not change the half-life of quinine elimination (25.1 ± 4.6 hours vs. 26.5 ± 5.8 hours), or the amount of unchanged quinine recovered in the urine, in comparison to 8 patients not treated in this manner [see Overdosage (10)].
Pediatric Patients: The pharmacokinetics of quinine in children (1.5 to 12 years old) with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria appear to be similar to that seen in adults with uncomplicated malaria. Furthermore, as seen in adults, the mean total clearance and the volume of distribution of quinine were reduced in pediatric patients with malaria as compared to the healthy pediatric controls. Table 2 below provides a comparison of the mean ± SD pharmacokinetic parameters of quinine in pediatric patients vs. healthy pediatric controls.
|* age 1.5 to 12 years|
|Quinine Pharmacokinetic Parameters Following the First 10 mg/kg |
Quinine Sulfate Oral Dose in Healthy Pediatric Controls and Pediatric
Patients with Acute Uncomplicated P. falciparum Malaria
|Healthy Pediatric |
Mean ± SD
|P. falciparum Malaria Pediatric Patients* |
Mean ± SD
|Cmax (mcg/mL)||3.4 ± 1.18||7.5 ± 1.1|
|Half-life (h)||3.2 ± 0.3||12.1 ± 1.4|
|Total CL (L/h/kg)||0.30 ± 0.04||0.06 ± 0.01|
|Vd (L/kg)||1.43 ± 0.18||0.87 ± 0.12|
Geriatric Patients: Following a single oral dose of 600 mg quinine sulfate, the mean AUC was about 38% higher in 8 healthy elderly subjects (65 to 78 years old) than in 12 younger subjects (20 to 35 years old). The mean Tmax and Cmax were similar in elderly and younger subjects after a single oral dose of quinine sulfate 600 mg. The mean oral clearance of quinine was significantly decreased, and the mean elimination half-life was significantly increased in elderly subjects compared with younger subjects (0.06 vs. 0.08 L/h/kg, and 18.4 hours vs. 10.5 hours, respectively). Although there was no significant difference in the renal clearance of quinine between the two age groups, elderly subjects excreted a larger proportion of the dose in urine as unchanged drug than younger subjects (16.6% vs. 11.2%).
After a single 648 mg dose or at steady state, following quinine sulfate 648 mg given three times daily for 7 days, no difference in the rate and extent of absorption or clearance of quinine was seen between 13 elderly subjects (65 to 78 years old) and 14 young subjects (20 to 39 years old). The mean elimination half-life was 20% longer in the elderly subjects (24.0 hours) than in younger subjects (20.0 hours). The steady state Cmax (±SD) and AUC0-8 (±SD) for healthy volunteers are 6.8 ± 1.24 mcg/mL and 48.8 ± 9.15 mcg*h/mL, respectively, following 7 days of oral quinine sulfate 648 mg three times daily. The steady state pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy elderly subjects were similar to the pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy young subjects.
Renal Impairment: Following a single oral 600 mg dose of quinine sulfate in otherwise healthy subjects with severe chronic renal failure not receiving any form of dialysis (mean serum creatinine = 9.6 mg/dL), the median AUC was higher by 195% and the median Cmax was higher by 79% than in subjects with normal renal function (mean serum creatinine = 1 mg/dL). The mean plasma half-life in subjects with severe chronic renal impairment was prolonged to 26 hours compared to 9.7 hours in the healthy controls. Computer assisted modeling and simulation indicates that in patients with malaria and severe chronic renal failure, a dosage regimen consisting of one loading dose of 648 mg quinine sulfate followed 12 hours later by a maintenance dosing regimen of 324 mg every 12 hours will provide adequate systemic exposure to quinine [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. The effects of mild and moderate renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of quinine sulfate are not known.
Negligible to minimal amounts of circulating quinine in the blood are removed by hemodialysis or hemofiltration. In subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF) on hemodialysis, only about 6.5% of quinine is removed in 1 hour. Plasma quinine concentrations do not change during or shortly after hemofiltration in subjects with CRF [see Overdosage (10)].
Hepatic Impairment: In otherwise healthy subjects with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A; N=10), who received a single 500 mg dose of quinine sulfate, there was no significant difference in quinine pharmacokinetic parameters or exposure to the primary metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine as compared to healthy controls (N=10). In otherwise healthy subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B; N=9) who received a single oral 600 mg dose of quinine sulfate, the mean AUC increased by 55% without a significant change in mean Cmax, as compared to healthy volunteer controls (N=6). In subjects with hepatitis, the absorption of quinine was prolonged, the elimination half-life was increased, the apparent volume of distribution was higher, but there was no significant difference in weight-adjusted clearance. Therefore, in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, dosage adjustment is not needed, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of quinine [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
In subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C; N=10), quinine oral clearance (CL/F) was reduced as was formation of the primary 3-hydroxyquinine metabolite. Volume of distribution (Vd/F) was higher and the plasma elimination half-life was increased. Therefore, quinine is not indicated in this population and alternate therapy should be administered [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
Mechanism of Action
Quinine inhibits nucleic acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and glycolysis in Plasmodium falciparum and can bind with hemazoin in parasitized erythrocytes. However, the precise mechanism of the antimalarial activity of quinine sulfate is not completely understood.
Activity In Vitro and In Vivo
Quinine sulfate acts primarily on the blood schizont form of P. falciparum. It is not gametocidal and has little effect on the sporozoite or pre-erythrocytic forms.
Strains of P. falciparum with decreased susceptibility to quinine can be selected in vivo. P. falciparum malaria that is clinically resistant to quinine has been reported in some areas of South America, Southeast Asia, and Bangladesh.
How Supplied/Storage and Handling
Quinine Sulfate Capsules USP, 324 mg are - size ‘0’ capsules with white opaque body and cap, imprinted “201” with black ink on cap and body.
|Bottles of 30||NDC-52682-501-09|
|Bottles of 100||NDC-52682-501-01|
|Bottles of 500||NDC-52682-501-03|
Store at 20º to 25ºC (68º to 77ºF).
[See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Dispense in a tight container as defined in the USP.