Adrenalin Injection

Name: Adrenalin Injection

Commonly used brand name(s)

In the U.S.

  • Adrenaclick
  • Adrenalin
  • Adrenalin Chloride
  • Auvi-Q
  • Epipen
  • Epipen Jr
  • Symjepi
  • Twinject

Available Dosage Forms:

  • Injectable
  • Solution

Therapeutic Class: Anaphylaxis Agent

Pharmacologic Class: Adrenergic

Chemical Class: Alkylarylamine

Before Using Adrenalin

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:


Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.


Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of epinephrine injection in children.


No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of epinephrine injection in geriatric patients. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related heart disease which may require caution in patients receiving epinephrine injection.


Pregnancy Category Explanation
All Trimesters C Animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.

Breast Feeding

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Interactions with Medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

  • Dihydroergotamine
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Linezolid
  • Phenelzine
  • Tranylcypromine

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Amitriptyline
  • Amoxapine
  • Bucindolol
  • Carteolol
  • Carvedilol
  • Clomipramine
  • Desipramine
  • Digoxin
  • Dilevalol
  • Dothiepin
  • Doxepin
  • Entacapone
  • Halothane
  • Imipramine
  • Iobenguane I 123
  • Levalbuterol
  • Levobunolol
  • Lofepramine
  • Metipranolol
  • Nadolol
  • Nortriptyline
  • Opipramol
  • Oxprenolol
  • Penbutolol
  • Pindolol
  • Propranolol
  • Protriptyline
  • Rasagiline
  • Sotalol
  • Tertatolol
  • Timolol
  • Trimipramine

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Labetalol

Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Angina pectoris (severe chest pain) or
  • Asthma or
  • Blood vessel problems or
  • Depression, history of or
  • Diabetes or
  • Heart attack or
  • Heart disease (eg, coronary artery disease, organic heart disease) or
  • Heart rhythm problems (eg, arrhythmia) or
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure) or
  • Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or
  • Parkinson's disease—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.

Dosage Forms and Strengths

Adrenalin® 1 mg/mL epinephrine injection, 1 mL solution in a single-use clear glass vial and 30 mL solution in a multiple-dose amber glass vial.

Adverse Reactions

Common adverse reactions to systemically administered epinephrine include anxiety, apprehensiveness, restlessness, tremor, weakness, dizziness, sweating, palpitations, pallor, nausea and vomiting, headache, and respiratory difficulties. These symptoms occur in some persons receiving therapeutic doses of epinephrine, but are more likely to occur in patients with heart disease, hypertension, or hyperthyroidism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Due to the lack of randomized, controlled clinical trials of epinephrine for the treatment of anaphylaxis, the true incidence of adverse reactions associated with the systemic use of epinephrine is difficult to determine. Adverse reactions reported in observational trials, case reports, and studies are listed below by body system:

Cardiovascular: angina, arrhythmias, hypertension, pallor, palpitations, tachyarrhythmia, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, ventricular ectopy and stress cardiomyopathy.

Angina may occur in patients with coronary artery disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Arrhythmias, including fatal ventricular fibrillation, have occurred, particularly in patients with underlying organic heart disease or patients receiving drugs that sensitize the heart to arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Rapid rises in blood pressure associated with epinephrine use have produced cerebral hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients with cardiovascular disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Respiratory: respiratory difficulties.

Neurological: dizziness , disorientation , excitability , headache , impaired memory , lightheadedness , nervousness , panic, psychomotor agitation, sleepiness , tingling , tremor, and weakness.

Psychiatric: anxiety, apprehensiveness, restlessness.

Gastrointestinal: nausea, vomiting.


Patients with Parkinson's disease may experience psychomotor agitation or a temporary worsening of symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Diabetic patients may experience transient increases in blood sugar [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Accidental injection into the digits, hands or feet may result in loss of blood flow to the affected area [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Adverse events experienced as a result of an injection into these areas include increased heart rate, local reactions including injection site pallor, coldness, hypoesthesia, and tissue loss, or injury at the injection site resulting in bruising, bleeding, discoloration, erythema, and skeletal injury.

Injection into the buttock has resulted in cases of gas gangrene [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Rare cases of serious skin and soft tissue infections, including necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis caused by Clostridia (gas gangrene), have been reported following epinephrine injection in the thigh [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Skin: sweating.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Par Pharmaceutical at 1-800-828-9393 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or

Use in specific populations


Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Epinephrine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus (fetal anoxia, spontaneous abortion, or both). Epinephrine is teratogenic in rabbits, mice and hamsters dosed during organogenesis.

Epinephrine has been shown to have teratogenic effects (including gastroschisis and embryonic lethality) when administered subcutaneous in rabbits at approximately 15 times the maximum recommended intramuscular or subcutaneous dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 1.2 mg/kg/day for two to three days).

In mice, teratogenic effects (including embryonic lethality) were observed at approximately 3 times the maximum recommended intramuscular or subcutaneous dose (on a mg/m2 basis at maternal subcutaneous dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 10 days). These effects were not seen in mice at approximately 2 times the maximum recommended daily intramuscular or subcutaneous dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a subcutaneous maternal dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 10 days).

In hamsters, teratogenic effects were observed at approximately 2 times the maximum recommended intramuscular or subcutaneous dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 days).

Labor and Delivery

Use with caution during labor and delivery. Although epinephrine improves maternal hypotension associated with anaphylaxis, it may result in uterine vasoconstriction, decreased uterine blood flow, and fetal anoxia.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether epinephrine is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when epinephrine is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Clinical use data support weight-based dosing for treatment of anaphylaxis in pediatric patients, and other reported clinical experience with the use of epinephrine suggests that the adverse reactions seen in children are similar in nature and extent to those both expected and reported in adults.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies for the treatment of anaphylaxis have not been performed in subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. However, other reported clinical experience with use of epinephrine for the treatment of anaphylaxis has identified that geriatric patients may be particularly sensitive to the effects of epinephrine. Therefore, for the treatment of anaphylaxis, consider starting with a lower dose to take into account potential concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Adrenalin Injection - Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Epinephrine acts on both alpha and beta-adrenergic receptors.


Through its action on alpha-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine lessens the vasodilation and increased vascular permeability that occurs during anaphylaxis, which can lead to loss of intravascular fluid volume and hypotension.

Through its action on beta-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine causes bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and helps alleviate bronchospasm, wheezing and dyspnea that may occur during anaphylaxis.

Epinephrine also alleviates pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema and may relieve gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms associated with anaphylaxis because of its relaxer effects on the smooth muscle of the stomach, intestine, uterus and urinary bladder.

Epinephrine increases glycogenolysis, reduces glucose up take by tissues, and inhibits insulin release in the pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and increased blood lactic acid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Epinephrine causes mydriasis when administered parenterally.


When administered parenterally, epinephrine has a rapid onset and short duration of action.

How Supplied/Storage and Handling

Adrenalin® 1 mL Single-Use Vials:

Each carton contains 25 single-use vials containing 1 mL Adrenalin® (epinephrine injection, USP) solution 1 mg/mL in a 3 mL clear glass vial.

NDC 42023-159-25      1 mL vial

Adrenalin® 30 mL Multi-Dose Vials:

Each carton contains 1 multiple-dose vial containing 30 mL Adrenalin® (epinephrine injection, USP) solution 1 mg/mL in a 36 mL amber glass vial.

NDC 42023-168-01      30 mL vial

Vial and contents must be discarded 30 days after initial use.

Store between 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].  Epinephrine is light sensitive. Protect from light and freezing.

Inspect visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Do not use the solution if it is colored or cloudy, or if it contains particulate matter.

Side Effects

Consult your pharmacist.

In the US -

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

List Adrenalin CHLORIDE Vial side effects by likelihood and severity.