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Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Zamicet Drug Class
Zamicet is part of the drug classes:
Opium alkaloids and derivatives
What other drugs will affect Zamicet (acetaminophen and hydrocodone)?
Narcotic (opioid) medication can interact with many other drugs and cause dangerous side effects or death. Be sure your doctor knows if you also use:
other narcotic medications--opioid pain medicine or prescription cough medicine;
drugs that make you sleepy or slow your breathing--a sleeping pill, muscle relaxer, sedative, tranquilizer, or antipsychotic medicine; or
drugs that affect serotonin levels in your body--medicine for depression, Parkinson's disease, migraine headaches, serious infections, or prevention of nausea and vomiting.
This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with acetaminophen and hydrocodone, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide.
Zamicet® (hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen oral solution) is supplied in liquid form for oral administration.
May be habit forming (see PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients, and DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).
Hydrocodone bitartrate is an opioid analgesic and antitussive which occurs as fine, white crystals or as a crystalline powder. It is affected by light. The chemical name is 4, 5α-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one tartrate (1:1) hydrate (2:5). It has the following structural formula:
C18H21NO3∙ C4H6O6∙ 2½ H2O M.W. 494.490
Acetaminophen, 4'-hydroxyacetanilide, a slightly bitter, white, odorless, crystalline powder, is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic. It has the following structural formula:
C8H9NO2 M.W. 151.16
|Per 7.5 mL||Per 15 mL|
|Hydrocodone bitartrate||5 mg||10 mg|
|Acetaminophen||163 mg||325 mg|
In addition Zamicet® contains the following inactive ingredients: citric acid, edetate disodium, glycerin, methylparaben, propylene glycol, purified water, saccharin sodium, sorbitol solution, sucrose, with D&C Yellow No. 10 as coloring and natural and artificial flavoring.
Indications and Usage for Zamicet
Zamicet® (hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen oral solution) is indicated for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain.
This product should not be administered to patients who have previously exhibited hypersensitivity to hydrocodone, acetaminophen, or any other component of this product.
Patients known to be hypersensitive to other opioids may exhibit cross-sensitivity to hydrocodone.
GeneralSpecial Risk Patients
As with any narcotic analgesic agent, Zamicet® should be used with caution in elderly or debilitated patients, and those with severe impairment of hepatic or renal function, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture. The usual precautions should be observed and the possibility of respiratory depression should be kept in mind.Cough Reflex
Hydrocodone suppresses the cough reflex; as with all narcotics, caution should be exercised when Zamicet® is used postoperatively and in patients with pulmonary disease.
Information for Patients/Caregivers
- Do not take Zamicet® if you are allergic to any of its ingredients.
- If you develop signs of allergy such as a rash or difficulty breathing stop taking Zamicet® and contact your healthcare provider immediately.
- Do not take more than 4000 milligrams of acetaminophen per day. Call your doctor if you took more than the recommended dose.
Hydrocodone, like all narcotics, may impair mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery. Such tasks should be avoided while taking this product.
Alcohol and other CNS depressants may produce an additive CNS depression, when taken with this combination product, and should be avoided.
Hydrocodone may be habit-forming. Patients should take the drug only for as long as it is prescribed, in the amounts prescribed, and no more frequently than prescribed.
Physicians should instruct patients and caregivers to read the patient information leaflet, which appears as the last section of the labeling.
In patients with severe hepatic or renal disease, effects of therapy should be monitored with serial liver and/or renal function tests.
Patients receiving narcotics, antihistamines, antipsychotics, antianxiety agents, or other CNS depressants (including alcohol) concomitantly with Zamicet® may exhibit an additive CNS depression. When combined therapy is contemplated, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced.
The use of MAO inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants with hydrocodone preparations may increase the effect of either the antidepressant or hydrocodone.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
Acetaminophen may produce false-positive test results for urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No adequate studies have been conducted in animals to determine whether hydrocodone has a potential for carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, or impairment of fertility.
Hydrocodone has not demonstrated mutagenic potential using the Ames Salmonella-Microsomal Activation test, the Basc test on Drosophila germ cells, and the Micronucleus test on mouse bone marrow.
No adequate studies have been conducted in animals to determine whether acetaminophen has a potential for carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, or impairment of fertility.
Acetaminophen has not demonstrated mutagenic potential using the Ames Salmonella-Microsomal Activation test, the Basc test on Drosophila germ cells, and the Micronucleus test on mouse bone marrow.
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Zamicet® should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.Nonteratogenic Effects
Babies born to mothers who have been taking opioids regularly prior to delivery will be physically dependent. The withdrawal signs include irritability and excessive crying, tremors, hyperactive reflexes, increased respiratory rate, increased stools, sneezing, yawning, vomiting, and fever. These signs usually appear during the first few days of life. The intensity of the syndrome does not always correlate with the duration of maternal opioid use or dose. There is no consensus on the best method of managing withdrawal.
Labor and Delivery
Narcotic analgesics cross the placental barrier. The closer to delivery and the larger the dose used, the greater the possibility of respiratory depression in the newborn. Narcotic analgesics should be avoided during labor if delivery of a premature infant is anticipated. If the mother has received narcotic analgesics during labor, newborn infants should be observed closely for signs of respiratory depression. Resuscitation may be required (see OVERDOSAGE). The effect of hydrocodone, if any, on the later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child is unknown.
Acetaminophen is excreted in breast milk in small amounts, but the significance of its effects on nursing infants is not known. It is not known whether hydrocodone is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from hydrocodone and acetaminophen, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population below the age of two years have not been established. Use of hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen in the pediatric population is supported by the evidence from adequate and well controlled studies of hydrocodone and acetaminophen combination products in adults with additional data which support the development of metabolic pathways in children two years of age and over (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for pediatric dosage information).
Clinical studies of hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen oral solution did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Hydrocodone and the major metabolites of acetaminophen are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney. Thus the risk of toxic reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function due to the accumulation of the parent compound and/or metabolites in the plasma. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Hydrocodone may cause confusion and over-sedation in the elderly; elderly patients generally should be started on low doses of hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen oral solution and observed closely.
Potential effects of high dosage are also listed in the OVERDOSAGE section.
Cardio-renal: Bradycardia, cardiac arrest, circulatory collapse, renal toxicity, renal tubular necrosis, hypotension.
Central Nervous System/Psychiatric: Anxiety, dizziness, drowsiness, dysphoria, euphoria, fear, general malaise, impairment of mental and physical performance, lethargy, light-headedness, mental clouding, mood changes, psychological dependence, sedation, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma.
Endocrine: Hypoglycemic coma.
Gastrointestinal System: Abdominal pain, constipation, gastric distress, heartburn, hepatic necrosis, hepatitis, occult blood loss, nausea, peptic ulcer, and vomiting.
Genitourinary System: Spasm of vesical sphincters, ureteral spasm, and urinary retention.
Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, prolonged bleeding time, thrombocytopenia.
Hypersensitivity: Allergic reactions.
Musculoskeletal: Skeletal muscle flaccidity.
Respiratory Depression: Acute airway obstruction, apnea, dose-related respiratory depression (see OVERDOSAGE), shortness of breath.
Special Senses: Cases of hearing impairment or permanent loss have been reported predominantly in patients with chronic overdose.
Skin: Cold and clammy skin, diaphoresis, pruritus, rash.
Following an acute overdosage, toxicity may result from hydrocodone or acetaminophen.
Signs and SymptomsHydrocodone
Serious overdose with hydrocodone is characterized by respiratory depression (a decrease in respiratory rate and/or tidal volume, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, cyanosis), extreme somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, and sometimes bradycardia and hypotension. In severe overdosage, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest and death may occur.Acetaminophen
In acetaminophen overdosage: dose-dependent, potentially fatal hepatic necrosis is the most serious adverse effect. Renal tubular necrosis, hypoglycemic coma and coagulation defects may also occur.
Early symptoms following a potentially hepatotoxic overdose may include: nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis and general malaise. Clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic toxicity may not be apparent until 48 to 72 hours post-ingestion.
A single or multiple drug overdose with hydrocodone and acetaminophen is a potentially lethal polydrug overdose, and consultation with a regional poison control center is recommended.
Immediate treatment includes support of cardiorespiratory function and measures to reduce drug absorption. Oxygen, intravenous fluids, vasopressors, and other supportive measures should be employed as indicated. Assisted or controlled ventilation should also be considered.
For hydrocodone overdose, primary attention should be given to the reestablishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and the institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. The narcotic antagonist naloxone hydrochloride is a specific antidote against respiratory depression which may result from overdosage or unusual sensitivity to narcotics, including hydrocodone. Since the duration of action of hydrocodone may exceed that of the antagonist, the patient should be kept under continued surveillance, and repeated doses of the antagonist should be administered as needed to maintain adequate respiration. A narcotic antagonist should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or cardiovascular depression.
Gastric decontamination with activated charcoal should be administered just prior to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to decrease systemic absorption if acetaminophen ingestion is known or suspected to have occurred within a few hours of presentation. Serum acetaminophen levels should be obtained immediately if the patient presents 4 hours or more after ingestion to assess potential risk of hepatoxicity; acetaminophen levels drawn less than 4 hours post-ingestion may be misleading. To obtain the best possible outcome, NAC should be administered as soon as possible where impending or evolving liver injury is suspected. Intravenous NAC may be administered when circumstances preclude oral administration.
Vigorous supportive therapy is required in severe intoxication. Procedures to limit the continuing absorption of the drug must be readily performed since the hepatic injury is dose dependent and occurs early in the course of intoxication.
Zamicet Dosage and Administration
Dosage should be adjusted according to the severity of the pain and the response of the patient. However, it should be kept in mind that tolerance to hydrocodone can develop with continued use and that the incidence of untoward effects is dose related.
The usual adult dosage is one tablespoonful (15 mL) every four to six hours as needed for pain. The total daily dosage should not exceed 6 tablespoonfuls.
The usual dosages for children are given by the table below, and are to be given every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain. These dosages correspond to an average individual dose of 0.20 mL/kg of Zamicet® (providing 0.135 mg/kg of hydrocodone bitartrate and 4.38 mg/kg of acetaminophen). Dosing should be based on weight whenever possible.
|BODY WEIGHT||APPROXIMATE AGE||DOSE |
every 4 to 6 hours
|MAXIMUM TOTAL DAILY DOSE |
(6 doses per day)
|12 to 15 kg |
(27 to 34 lbs)
|2 to 3 years||2.8 mL (approx. ½ teaspoonful)||16.8 mL (approx. 3¼ teaspoonfuls)|
|16 to 22 kg |
(35 to 50 lbs)
|4 to 6 years||3.75 mL (approx. ¾ teaspoonful)||22.5 mL (approx. 4½ teaspoonfuls)|
|23 to 31 kg |
(51 to 69 lbs)
|7 to 9 years||5.6 mL (approx. 1 teaspoonful)||33.6 mL (approx. 6½ teaspoonfuls)|
|32 to 45 kg |
(70 to 100 lbs)
|10 to 13 years||7.5 mL (approx. 1½ teaspoonfuls)||45 mL (approx. 9 teaspoonfuls)|
|46 kg and up |
(101 lbs and up)
|14 years to adult||11.25 mL (approx. 2¼ teaspoonfuls)||67.5 mL (approx. 13½ teaspoonfuls)|
|adult||15 mL |
|90 mL |
The total daily dosage for children should not exceed 6 doses per day. It is of utmost importance that the dose of Zamicet® be administered accurately. A household teaspoon or tablespoon is not an adequate measuring device, especially when one-half or three-fourths of a teaspoonful is to be measured. Given the inexactitude of the household spoon measure and the possibility of using a tablespoon instead of a teaspoon, which could lead to overdosage, it is strongly recommended that caregivers obtain and use a calibrated measuring device. Health care providers should recommend a dropper that can measure and deliver the prescribed dose accurately, and instruct caregivers to use extreme caution in measuring the dosage.