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Uses of Xrylix
- It is used to ease pain and swelling.
- It is used to treat arthritis.
What are some things I need to know or do while I take Xrylix?
- Tell all of your health care providers that you take Xrylix. This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
- Have blood work checked as you have been told by the doctor. Talk with the doctor.
- High blood pressure has happened with drugs like this one. Have your blood pressure checked as you have been told by your doctor.
- If you smoke, talk with your doctor.
- If you have asthma, talk with your doctor. You may be more sensitive to this medicine.
- Talk with your doctor before you drink alcohol.
- Do not use on skin that has any problems.
- Do not use more than told. Unsafe side effects may happen.
- Do not use longer than you have been told by the doctor.
- Avoid sunlight on treated area.
- The chance of heart failure is raised with the use of drugs like this one. In people who already have heart failure, the chance of heart attack, having to go to the hospital for heart failure, and death is raised. Talk with the doctor.
- The chance of heart attack and heart-related death is raised in people taking drugs like this one after a recent heart attack. People taking drugs like this one after a first heart attack were also more likely to die in the year after the heart attack compared with people not taking drugs like this one. Talk with the doctor.
- If you are taking aspirin to help prevent a heart attack, talk with your doctor.
- This medicine may cause harm if swallowed. If Xrylix is swallowed, call a doctor or poison control center right away.
- This medicine may affect how much of some other drugs are in your body. If you are taking other drugs, talk with your doctor. You may need to have your blood work checked more closely while taking this medicine with your other drugs.
- If you are 65 or older, use Xrylix with care. You could have more side effects.
- NSAIDs like this medicine may affect egg release (ovulation) in women. This may cause you to not be able to get pregnant. This goes back to normal when Xrylix (diclofenac topical solution) is stopped. Talk with your doctor.
- This medicine may cause harm to the unborn baby if you take it while you are pregnant. If you are pregnant or you get pregnant while taking this medicine, call your doctor right away.
- Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding. You will need to talk about any risks to your baby.
What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?
WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
- Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
- Chest pain or pressure.
- Shortness of breath, a big weight gain, or swelling in the arms or legs.
- Weakness on 1 side of the body, trouble speaking or thinking, change in balance, drooping on one side of the face, or blurred eyesight.
- A very bad skin reaction (Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) may happen. It can cause very bad health problems that may not go away, and sometimes death. Get medical help right away if you have signs like red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin (with or without fever); red or irritated eyes; or sores in your mouth, throat, nose, or eyes.
- Signs of bleeding like throwing up blood or throw up that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; blood in the urine; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; vaginal bleeding that is not normal; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any bleeding that is very bad or that you cannot stop.
- Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
- Signs of high potassium levels like a heartbeat that does not feel normal; feeling confused; feeling weak, lightheaded, or dizzy; feeling like passing out; numbness or tingling; or shortness of breath.
- Signs of high blood pressure like very bad headache or dizziness, passing out, or change in eyesight.
- A fast heartbeat.
- Very bad belly pain.
- Very bad back pain.
- Feeling very tired or weak.
- Flu-like signs.
- Liver problems have happened with drugs like this one. Sometimes, this has been deadly. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
Diclofenac sodium topical solution is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to diclofenac sodium or any other component of diclofenac sodium topical solution.
Diclofenac sodium topical solution is contraindicated in patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.10)].
Diclofenac sodium topical solution is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Warnings and precautions
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several oral COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, including diclofenac sodium topical solution and COX-2 selective and nonselective orally administered NSAIDs, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Inform patients about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
Two large, controlled, clinical trials of an orally administered COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke [see Contraindications (4)].
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use.
The concurrent use of aspirin and NSAIDS, such as diclofenac, does increase the risk of serious GI events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Gastrointestinal Effects – Risk of GI Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation
NSAIDs, including diclofenac, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2 to 4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
Prescribe NSAIDs, including diclofenac sodium topical solution, with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, use special care when treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration. Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during diclofencac therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. For high-risk patients, consider alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs.
Borderline elevations (less than 3 times the upper limit of the normal [ULN] range) or greater elevations of transaminases occurred in about 15% of oral diclofenac-treated patients in clinical trials of indications other than acute pain. Of the markers of hepatic function, ALT (SGPT) is recommended for the monitoring of liver injury.
In clinical trials of an oral diclofenac – misoprostol combination product, meaningful elevations (i.e., more than 3 times the ULN) of AST (SGOT) occurred in about 2% of approximately 5,700 patients at some time during diclofenac treatment (ALT was not measured in all studies).
In an open-label, controlled trial of 3,700 patients treated for 2 to 6 months, patients with oral diclofenac were monitored first at 8 weeks and 1,200 patients were monitored again at 24 weeks. Meaningful elevations of ALT and/or AST occurred in about 4% of the 3,700 patients and included marked elevations (>8 times the ULN) in about 1% of the 3,700 patients. In this open-label study, a higher incidence of borderline (less than 3 times the ULN), moderate (3 to 8 times the ULN), and marked (>8 times the ULN) elevations of ALT or AST was observed in patients receiving diclofenac when compared to other NSAIDs. Elevations in transaminases were seen more frequently in patients with osteoarthritis than in those with rheumatoid arthritis. Almost all meaningful elevations in transaminases were detected before patients became symptomatic.
Abnormal test occurred during the first 2 months of therapy with oral diclofenac in 42 of the 51 patients in all trials who developed marked transaminase elevations. In postmarketing reports, cases of drug-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the first month, and in some cases, the first 2 months of NSAID therapy.
Postmarketing surveillance has reported cases of sever hepatic reactions, including liver necrosis, jaundice, fulminant hepatitis with and without jaundice, and liver failure. Some of these reported cases resulted in fatalities or liver transplantation.
In a European retrospective population-based, case-controlled study, 10 cases of oral diclofenac associated drug-induced liver injury with current use compared with non-use of diclofenac were associated with a statistically significant 4-fold adjusted odds ratio of liver injury. In this particular study, based on an overall number of 10 cases of liver injury associated with diclofenac, the adjusted odds ratio increased further with female gender, doses of 150 mg or more, and duration of use for more than 90 days.
Measure transaminases (ALT and AST) periodically in patients receiving long-term therapy with diclofenac, because severe hepatotoxicity may develop without a prodrome of distinguishing symptoms. The optimum times for making the first and subsequent transaminase measurements are not known. Based on clinical trial data and postmarketing experiences, monitor transaminases within 4 to 8 weeks after initiating treatment with diclofenac. However, severe hepatic reactions can occur at any time during treatment with diclofenac. If abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, if clinical signs and/or symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g. eosinophilia, rash, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dark urine, etc.), discontinue diclofenac sodium topical solution immediately.
To minimize the possibility that hepatic injury will become severe between transaminase measurements, inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flulike" symptoms), and the appropriate action to take if these signs and symptoms appear.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse liver-related event in patients treated with diclofenac sodium topical solution, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Exercise caution when prescribing diclofenac sodium topical solution with concomitant drugs that are known to be potentially hepatotoxic (e.g., acetaminophen, certain antibiotics, antiepileptics). Caution patients to avoid taking unprescribed acetaminophen while using diclofenac sodium topical solution.
NSAIDs, including diclofenac, can lead to new onset or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Use NSAIDs, including diclofenac sodium topical solution, with caution in patients with hypertension. Monitor blood pressure (BP) closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Patients taking ACE-inhibitors, thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs.
Congestive Heart Failure and Edema
Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients treated with NSAIDs, including diclofenac sodium topical solution. Use diclofenac sodium topical solution with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.
Use caution when initiating treatment with diclofenac sodium topical solution in patients with considerable dehydration.
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE-inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of diclofenac sodium topical solution in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with diclofenac sodium topical solution is not recommended in patients with advanced renal disease. If diclofenac sodium topical solution therapy is initiated, close monitoring of the patient's renal function is advisable.
As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without prior exposure to diclofenac sodium topical solution. Do not prescribe diclofenac sodium topical solution to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]. Seek emergency help in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.
Do not apply diclofenac sodium topical solution to open skin wounds, infections, inflammations, or exfoliative dermatitis, as it may affect absorption and tolerability of the drug.
NSAIDs, including diclofenac sodium topical solution, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations, and discontinue use of the drug at the first appearance of skin rash or any other signs of hypersensitivity.
Diclofenac sodium topical solution should not be used by pregnant or nursing women or those intending to become pregnant.
Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm, which can be fatal. Since cross-reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, do not administer diclofenac sodium topical solution to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and use with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.
Instruct patients to avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight on treated knee(s) because studies in animals indicated topical diclofenac treatment resulted in an earlier onset of ultraviolet light-induced skin tumors. The potential effects of diclofenac sodium topical solution on skin response to ultraviolet damage in humans are not known.
Avoid contact of diclofenac sodium topical solution with eyes and mucosa. Advise patients that if eye contact occurs, immediately wash out the eye with water or saline and consult a physician if irritation persists for more than an hour.
Oral Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Concomitant use of oral NSAIDs with diclofenac sodium topical solution resulted in a higher rate of rectal hemorrhage, more frequent abnormal creatinine, urea and hemoglobin. Therefore, do not use combination therapy with diclofenac sodium topical solution and an oral NSAID unless the benefit outweighs the risk and conduct periodic laboratory evaluations.
Diclofenac sodium topical solution cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to exacerbation of corticosteroid-response illness. For patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy, taper slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.
The pharmacological activity of diclofenac sodium topical solution in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.
The effects of diclofenac sodium topical solution on platelet function were studied in 10 healthy subjects administered 80 drops four times a day for 7 days. There was no significant change in platelet aggregation following one week of treatment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].
Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Check hemoglobin or hematocrit of patients on diclofenac sodium topical solution if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia or blood loss.
NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration and reversible. Carefully monitor patients receiving diclofenac sodium topical solution who may be adversely affected by alteration in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants.
Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms in patients taking NSAIDs, monitor patients for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Check CBC and a chemistry profile periodically in patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs. Discontinue diclofenac sodium topical solution if abnormal liver tests or renal tests persist or worsen.
Mechanism of Action
The mechanism of action of diclofenac is similar to that of other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Diclofenac inhibits the enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX), an early component of the arachidonic acid cascade, resulting in the reduced formation of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacylin. It is not completely understood how reduced synthesis of these compounds results in therapeutic efficacy.
Diclofenac, the active component of diclofenac sodium topical solution has anti-inflammatory, anti-nociception, and antipyretic effects.
After topical administration to healthy human volunteers of single and multiple maximum doses of diclofenac sodium topical solution, 40 drops (approximately 1.2 mL) to each knee (80 drops total dose), the following diclofenac pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained: (see Table 2).
|Pharmacokinetic Parameters||Diclofenac sodium|
|Normal Adults [N=18] |
(Age: 18-55 years)
|Normal Adults [N=19] |
(Age: 18-55 years)
|Single Dose||Multiple Dose |
Four times daily for 7 days
|* Apparent total body clearance|
|AUC0-t||177.5 ± 72.6 ng.h/mL||695.4 ± 348.9 ng.h/mL|
|AUC0-inf||196.3 ± 68.5 ng.h/mL||745.2 ± 374.7 ng.h/mL|
|Plasma Cmax||8.1 ± 5.9 ng/mL||19.4 ± 9.3 ng/mL|
|Plasma Tmax (h)||11.0 ± 6.4||4.0 ± 6.5|
|Plasma t1/2 (h)||36.7 ± 20.8||79.0 ± 38.1|
|Kel (h-1)||0.024 ± 0.010||0.011 ± 0.004|
|CL/F (L/h)||244.7 ± 84.7*||-|
Diclofenac systemic exposure from diclofenac sodium topical solution application (4 times daily for 1 week) was approximately 1/3 of the diclofenac systemic exposure from the Solaraze (diclofenac topical gel) application (twice daily for 4 weeks).
Diclofenac is more than 99% bound to human serum proteins, primarily to albumin.
Diclofenac diffuses into and out of the synovial fluid. Diffusion into the joint occurs when plasma levels are higher than those in the synovial fluid, after which the process reverses and synovial fluid levels are higher than plasma levels. It is not known whether diffusion into the joint plays a role in the effectiveness of diclofenac.
Five diclofenac metabolites have been identified in human plasma and urine. The metabolites include 4'-hydroxy-, 5-hydroxy-, 3'-hydroxy-, 4',5-dihydroxy- and 3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxy diclofenac. The major diclofenac metabolite, 4'-hydroxy-diclofenac, has very weak pharmacologic activity. The formation of 4'-hydroxy diclofenac is primarily mediated by CPY2C9. Both diclofenac and its oxidative metabolites undergo glucuronidation or sulfation followed by bilIary excretion. Acylglucuronidation mediated by UGT2B7 and oxidation mediated by CPY2C8 may also play a role in diclofenac metabolism. CYP3A4 is responsible for the formation of minor metabolites, 5-hydroxy and 3'-hydroxy-diclofenac.
Diclofenac is eliminated through metabolism and subsequent urinary and biliary excretion of the glucuronide and the sulfate conjugates of the metabolites.
Little or no free unchanged diclofenac is excreted in the urine.
Pediatric: The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium topical solution has not been investigated in pediatric patients.
Race: Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been studied.
The effect of diclofenac sodium topical solution on platelet function was evaluated in 10 healthy human volunteers as a sub-study of a multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study [see Pharmacokinetics (12.3)]. Average (range) platelet aggregation time following stimulation with adenosine diphosphate, collagen, epinephrine and arachidonic acid was 101.3% (73.3 to 128.1), 99.8% (69.6 to 112.9), 109.9% (66.2 to 178.1) and 99.0% (15.5 to 126.6) of baseline value, respectively. These results indicate that there was no effect on platelet aggregation after application of the maximum clinical dose for 7 days [see Pharmacokinetics (12.3)].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats administered diclofenac sodium, as a dietary constituent for 2 years resulted in no significant increases in tumor incidence at doses up to 2 mg/kg/day corresponding to approximately 0.35-and 0.7-fold (mouse and rat, respectively) of the maximum recommended human topical dose (MRHD) of diclofenac sodium topical solution (based on apparent bioavailability and body surface area comparison).
In a dermal carcinogenicity study conducted in albino mice, daily topical applications of diclofenac sodium for two years at concentrations up to 0.035% diclofenac sodium (a 43-fold lower diclofenac sodium concentration than present in diclofenac sodium topical solution) did not increase neoplasm incidence.
In a photococarcinogenicity study conducted in hairless mice, topical application of diclofenac sodium at doses up to 0.035% diclofenac sodium (a 43-fold lower diclofenac sodium concentration than present in diclofenac sodium topical solution) resulted in an earlier median time of onset of tumors.
Mutagenesis: Diclofenac was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a battery of genotoxicity tests that included the bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro mouse lymphoma point mutation assay, chromosomal aberration studies in Chinese hamster ovarian cells in vitro, and in vivo rat chromosomal aberration assay of bone marrow cells.
Impairment of Fertility: Fertility studies have not been conducted with diclofenac sodium topical solution. Diclofenac sodium administered to male and female rats at doses up to 4 mg/kg/day (1.4-fold of the MRHD of diclofenac sodium topical solution based on apparent bioavailability and body surface area comparison) did not affect fertility. Studies have not been conducted to determine the safety of DMSO on fertility.
Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
No adverse effects were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy after multiple-daily dermal application to rats for 26 weeks and minipigs for 52 weeks of DMSO at twice the concentration found in diclofenac sodium topical solution. Published studies of dermal or oral administration of DMSO to rabbits, dogs and pigs described refractive changes of lens curvature and cortical fibers indicative of myopic changes and/or incidences of lens opacity or discoloration when evaluated using slit-lamp biomicroscopy examination, although no ocular abnormalities were observed in rhesus monkeys during daily oral or dermal treatment with DMSO for 9 to 18 months.
Pivotal Studies in Osteoarthritis of the Knee
The use of diclofenac sodium topical solution for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee was evaluated in two double-blind controlled trials conducted in the U.S. and Canada, involving patients treated with diclofenac sodium topical solution at a dose of 40 drops four times a day for 12 weeks. Diclofenac sodium topical solution was compared to topical placebo (2.3% DMSO with other excipients) and/or topical vehicle solution (45.5% w/w DMSO with other excipients), applied directly to the study knee. In both trials, diclofenac sodium topical solution treatment resulted in statistically significant clinical improvement compared to placebo and/or vehicle, in all three primary efficacy variables – pain, physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities LK3.1 OA Index (WOMAC) pain and physical function dimensions) and Patient Overall Health Assessment (POHA)/Patient Global Assessment (PGA). Numerical results are summarized in Tables 3 and 4.
|Study I |
Mean baseline score and mean change in efficacy variables after 12 weeks of treatment
|Mean Baseline score||Diclofenac sodium |
|Topical placebo* |
|Topical vehicle† |
|* placebo formulation included 2.3% DMSO † vehicle formulation included 45.5% DMSO|
|WOMAC pain score |
(Likert 3.1, 0-20)
|WOMAC physical function |
(Likert 3.1, 0-68)
|Study II |
Mean baseline score and mean change in efficacy variables after
12 weeks of treatment
|Mean Baseline score||Diclofenac sodium |
|Topical vehicle* |
|* vehicle formulation included 45.5% DMSO|
|WOMAC pain score |
(Likert 3.1, 0-20)
|WOMAC physical function |
(Likert 3.1, 0-68)