Moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide

Name: Moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide

Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide Interactions

Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take including prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Especially tell your doctor if you are taking:

  • potassium supplements or potassium-containing salt substitutes
  • potassium¬≠sparing diuretics such as spironolactone (Aldactone), triamterene (Dyrenium), and amiloride (Midamor)
  • anticoagulant (blood thinner) medications such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven), heparin, enoxaparin (Lovenox), fondaparinux (Arixtra), rivaroxaban (Xarelto), and  apixaban (Eliquis)
  • lithium (Lithobid)
  • injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate)
  • alcohol, a class of drugs called barbiturates, or a type of pain medications called narcotics
  • diabetic medications
  • cholestyramine (Questran) and colestipol (Colestid)
  • medicines that provide relief for inflamed areas of the body (corticosteroids) such as methylprednisolone (Medrol) and dexamethasone (Decadron)
  • substances that raise blood pressure (pressor amines) such as norepinephrine (Levophed)
  • medicines that relax skeletal muscles such as cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) and carisoprodol (Soma)
  • lithium (Lithobid)
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as naproxen (Aleve) and ibuprofen (Advil)
  • certain medications that also lower blood pressure such as angiotensin-¬≠converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors like enalapril (Vasotec, Vaseretic) and angiotensin receptor II blockers (ARBs) like valsartan (Diovan)
  • aliskiren (Tekturna)

This is not a complete list of moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide drug interactions. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. 

Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide Usage

  • Take moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide exactly as prescribed.
  • This medication comes in tablet form and is typically given once or twice daily one hour before meals.
  • If you miss a dose, take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and take your next dose at the regular time. Do not take two doses of moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide at the same time. 

Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide FDA Warning

WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY

  • When pregnancy is detected, discontinue moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide as soon as possible.
  • Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus.

Commonly used brand name(s)

In the U.S.

  • Uniretic

Available Dosage Forms:

  • Tablet

Therapeutic Class: ACE Inhibitor/Thiazide Combination

Pharmacologic Class: Diuretic

Chemical Class: Thiazide

What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of high blood sugar like confusion, feeling sleepy, more thirst, more hungry, passing urine more often, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit.
  • Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
  • Signs of fluid and electrolyte problems like mood changes, confusion, muscle pain or weakness, a heartbeat that does not feel normal, very bad dizziness or passing out, fast heartbeat, more thirst, seizures, feeling very tired or weak, not hungry, unable to pass urine or change in the amount of urine produced, dry mouth, dry eyes, or very bad upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Cough that does not go away.
  • Chest pain.
  • Trouble passing urine.
  • Pain when passing urine.
  • Swelling in the arms or legs.
  • Very bad belly pain.
  • This medicine can cause certain eye problems. If left untreated, this can lead to lasting eyesight loss. If eye problems happen, signs like change in eyesight or eye pain most often happen within hours to weeks of starting moexipril and hydrochlorothiazide. Call your doctor right away if you have these signs.
  • Very bad and sometimes deadly liver problems have happened with this medicine. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.

If OVERDOSE is suspected

If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide - Clinical Pharmacology

Moexipril Hydrochloride

Moexipril hydrochloride is a prodrug for moexiprilat, which inhibits ACE in humans and animals. The mechanism through which moexiprilat lowers blood pressure is believed to be primarily inhibition of ACE activity. ACE is a peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor substance angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent peripheral vasoconstrictor that also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex and provides negative feedback on renin secretion. ACE is identical to kininase II, an enzyme that degrades bradykinin, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator. Moexiprilat is about 1000 times as potent as moexipril in inhibiting ACE and kininase II. Inhibition of ACE results in decreased angiotensin II formation, leading to decreased vasoconstriction, increased plasma renin activity, and decreased aldosterone secretion. The latter results in diuresis and natriuresis and a small increase in serum potassium concentration (mean increases of about 0.25 mEq/L were seen when moexipril was used alone).

Whether increased levels of bradykinin, a potent vasodepressor peptide, play a role in the therapeutic effects of moexipril remains to be elucidated. Although the principal mechanism of moexipril in blood pressure reduction is believed to be through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, ACE inhibitors have some effect on blood pressure even in apparent low-renin hypertension. As is the case with other ACE inhibitors, however, the antihypertensive effect of moexipril is smaller in black patients, a predominantly low-renin population, than in nonblack hypertensive patients. Although moexipril monotherapy is less effective in blacks than in nonblacks, the efficacy of combination therapy appears to be independent of race.

Hydrochlorothiazide

Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic and antihypertensive. Thiazides affect the distal renal tubular mechanisms of electrolyte reabsorption, directly increasing excretion of sodium and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. Indirectly, the diuretic action of hydrochlorothiazide reduces plasma volume, with consequent increases in plasma renin activity, increases in aldosterone secretion, increases in urinary potassium loss, and decreases in serum potassium. The renin-aldosterone link is mediated by angiotensin, so coadministration of an ACE inhibitor tends to reverse the potassium loss associated with these diuretics. The mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of thiazides is unknown.

Pharmacokinetics

Moexipril-Hydrochlorothiazide

Following oral administration of moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets, the moexipril peak plasma concentration was reached within 0.8 hour and the peak plasma concentration of moexiprilat occurred 1.6 hours after administration. After reaching the peak plasma level (Cmax), moexiprilat plasma concentrations decreased biphasically. After administration of Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets, renal excretion of unchanged hydrochlorothiazide is about 60% in 24 hours. The pharmacokinetics of Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide after administration of Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets are not different, respectively, from the pharmacokinetics of Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide from immediate-release monotherapy formulations.

Moexipril Hydrochloride

Moexipril's antihypertensive activity is almost entirely due to its deesterified metabolite, moexiprilat. Bioavailability of oral moexipril is about 13% compared to intravenous (I.V.) moexipril (both measuring the metabolite moexiprilat), and is markedly affected by food, which reduces Cmax and AUC (see Absorption ). Moexipril should therefore be taken in a fasting state. The time of peak plasma concentration (Tmax) of moexiprilat is about 1 ½ hours and elimination half-life (t½) is estimated at 2 to 9 hours in various studies, the variability reflecting a complex elimination pattern that is not simply exponential. Like all ACE inhibitors, moexiprilat has a prolonged terminal elimination phase, presumably reflecting slow release of drug bound to the ACE. Accumulation of moexiprilat with repeated dosing is minimal, about 30%, compatible with a functional elimination t½ of about 12 hours. Over the dose range of 7.5 to 30 mg, pharmacokinetics are approximately dose proportional.

Absorption

Moexipril is incompletely absorbed, with bioavailability as moexiprilat of about 13%. Bioavailability varies with formulation and food intake, which reduces Cmax and AUC of moexiprilat by about 70% and 40% respectively after the ingestion of a low-fat breakfast or by 80% and 50% respectively after the ingestion of a high-fat breakfast.

Distribution

The clearance (CL) for moexipril is 441 mL/min and for moexiprilat 232 mL/min with a t½ of 1.3 and 9.8 hours, respectively. Moexiprilat is about 50% protein bound. The volume of distribution of moexiprilat is about 2.8 L/kg.

Metabolism and Excretion

Moexipril is relatively rapidly converted to its active metabolite moexiprilat, but persists longer than some other ACE inhibitor prodrugs, such that its t½ is over one hour and it has a significant AUC. Both moexipril and moexiprilat are converted to diketopiperazine derivatives and unidentified metabolites. After I.V. administration of moexipril, about 40% of the dose appears in urine as moexiprilat, about 26% as moexipril, with small amounts of the metabolites; about 20% of the I.V. dose appears in feces, principally as moexiprilat. After oral administration, only about 7% of the dose appears in urine as moexiprilat, about 1% as moexipril, with about 5% as other metabolites. Fifty-two percent of the dose is recovered in feces as moexiprilat and 1% as moexipril.

Special Populations

Decreased Renal Function

The effective elimination t½ and AUC of both moexipril and moexiprilat are increased with decreasing renal function. There is insufficient information available to characterize this relationship fully, but at creatinine clearances in the range of 10 to 40 mL/min, the t½ of moexiprilat is increased by a factor of 3 to 4.

Decreased Hepatic Function

In patients with mild to moderate cirrhosis given single 15 mg doses of moexipril, the Cmax of moexipril was increased by about 50% and the AUC increased by about 120%, while the Cmax for moexiprilat was decreased by about 50% and the AUC increased by almost 300%.

Elderly Patients

In elderly male subjects (65-80 years old) with clinically normal renal and hepatic function, the AUC and Cmax of moexiprilat are about 30% greater than in younger subjects (19-42 years old).

Pharmacokinetic Interactions With Other Drugs

No clinically important pharmacokinetic interactions occurred when moexipril was administered concomitantly with hydrochlorothiazide, digoxin, or cimetidine.

Hydrochlorothiazide

Absorption

After oral administration, 60-80% of a single dose of hydrochlorothiazide is absorbed. The reported studies of food effects on hydrochlorothiazide absorption have been inconclusive. The absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is reported to be reduced by 50% in patients with congestive heart failure. Hydrochlorothiazide exhibits dose proportionality over the dose range of 12.5 to 75 mg.

Distribution

The apparent volume of distribution has been observed to vary between 1.5-4.2 L/kg. Hydrochlorothiazide accumulates in red blood cells, so that whole blood levels are higher than those measured in plasma. Equilibrium between whole blood levels and plasma levels is reached 4 hours after oral administration. Hydrochlorothiazide crosses the placental barrier. Hydrochlorothiazide has a protein binding of 21-24%.

Metabolism and Excretion

Hydrochlorothiazide is not metabolized. Hydrochlorothiazide is eliminated rapidly by the kidney. More than 60 percent of the oral dose is eliminated unchanged within 24 hours. When plasma levels have been followed for at least 24 hours, the plasma half-life has been observed to vary between 5.6 and 14.8 hours. The renal clearance has been observed to vary between 3.1-5.5 mL/min/kg.

Special Populations

Decreased Renal Function

In a study of patients with impaired renal function (mean creatinine clearance of 19 mL/min), the elimination half-life of hydrochlorothiazide was increased to 21 hours.

Pharmacokinetic Interactions With Other Drugs

Coadministration of propantheline or guanabenz increased the absorption of hydrochlorothiazide and coadministration of cholestyramine or colestipol decreased the absorption of hydrochlorothiazide.

Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effect

Moexipril - Hydrochlorothiazide

In moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets clinical trials using moexipril doses of 3.75-30 mg and hydrochlorothiazide doses of 3.125-50 mg, the antihypertensive effects were sustained for at least 24 hours and they increased with increasing dose of either component. The extent of blood pressure reduction seen with moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets was approximately additive as compared to monotherapy of each component. The antihypertensive effects of moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets continue during therapy for up to 24 months. The effectiveness of moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets was not significantly influenced by patient age or gender. Although moexipril monotherapy is less effective in blacks than in nonblacks, the efficacy of moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets appears to be independent of race.

By blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, administration of moexipril tends to reduce the potassium loss associated with hydrochlorothiazide. In moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets controlled clinical trials, the average change in serum potassium was near zero in subjects who received 3.75 mg/ 6.25 mg or 7.5 mg / 12.5 mg, but subjects who received 15 mg / 12.5 mg or 15 mg / 25 mg experienced a mild decrease in serum potassium, similar to that experienced by subjects who received the same dose of hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy.

Moexipril Hydrochloride

Single and multiple doses of 15 mg or more of moexipril give sustained inhibition of plasma ACE activity of 80-90%, beginning within 2 hours and lasting 24 hours (80%).

In controlled trials, the peak effects of orally administered moexipril increased with the dose administered over a dose range of 7.5 to 60 mg, given once a day. Antihypertensive effects were first detectable about 1 hour after dosing, with a peak effect between 3 and 6 hours after dosing. Just before dosing ( i.e , at trough), the antihypertensive effects were less prominently related to dose and the antihypertensive effect tended to diminish during the 24-hour dosing interval when the drug was administered once a day.

In multiple-dose studies in the dose range of 7.5 to 30 mg once daily, moexipril lowered sitting blood pressure at trough by 4-11/3-6 mmHg more than placebo, a tendency toward increased response with higher doses. These effects are typical of ACE inhibitors; there are no trials of adequate size comparing moexipril with other antihypertensive agents.

Higher doses of moexipril generally leave a greater fraction of the peak blood pressure effect still present at trough. During dose titration, any decision as to the adequacy of a dosing regimen should be based on trough blood pressure measurements. If diastolic blood pressure control is not adequate at the end of the dosing interval, the dose can be increased or given as a divided (BID) regimen.

During chronic therapy, the antihypertensive effect of any dose of moexipril is generally evident within 2 weeks of treatment, with maximal reduction after 4 weeks. The antihypertensive effects of moexipril have been proven to continue during therapy for up to 24 months.

Moexipril, like other ACE inhibitors, is less effective in decreasing trough blood pressures in blacks than in nonblacks. Placebo-corrected trough group diastolic blood pressure effects in blacks in the proposed dose range were +1 to -3 mmHg compared with responses in nonblacks of -4 to -6 mmHg.

The effectiveness of moexipril was not significantly influenced by patient age, gender, or weight. Moexipril has been shown to have antihypertensive activity in both pre- and postmenopausal women who have participated in placebo-controlled clinical trials.

Indications and Usage for Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide

Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets are indicated for treatment of patients with hypertension. This fixed combination is not indicated for the initial therapy of hypertension( see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

In using moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets, consideration should be given to the fact that another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has caused agranulocytosis, particularly in patients with renal impairment or collagen-vascular disease. Available data are insufficient to show that moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets does not have a similar risk (see WARNINGS, Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis ). In addition, ACE inhibitors, for which adequate data are available, cause a higher rate of angioedema in black than in nonblack patients (see WARNINGS, Angioedema ).

Adverse Reactions

Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets have been evaluated for safety in more than 1140 patients with hypertension with more than 120 treated for more than one year. Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets have not demonstrated a potential for causing adverse experiences different from those previously associated with other ACE inhibitor/diuretic combinations. The overall incidence of reported adverse events was slightly less in patients treated with moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets than patients treated with placebo.

Adverse experiences were usually mild and transient, and there was no relationship between adverse experiences and gender, race, age, or total daily dosage (except for serum potassium decreases at 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide) within the moexipril/ hydrochlorothiazide dosage range of 3.75 mg / 3.125 mg to 30 mg / 50 mg. Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse experiences was required in 5.3% of patients treated with moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets and in 8.4% of patients treated with placebo.

The most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy with moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets were cough (0.5%) and dizziness (0.5%).

All adverse experiences considered at least possibly related to treatment that occurred at any dose in placebo-controlled trials of once-daily dosing in more than 1% of patients treated with moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets and that were at least as frequent in the moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets group as in the placebo group are shown in the following table.

Adverse Events in Placebo-Controlled Trials

ADVERSE EVENT Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets (N=506)N (%) PLACEBO(N=202)N (%)
Cough 15  (3) 2  (1)
Dizziness 7 (1.4) 2  (1)
Fatigue 5  (1) 2  (1)

Other adverse experiences occurring in more than 1% of patients treated with moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets are in controlled or uncontrolled trials, some of which were of uncertain drug relationship, listed in decreasing frequency include: upper respiratory infection, headache, pain, flu syndrome, pharyngitis, hyperuricemia, diarrhea, back pain, rhinitis, sinusitis, abnormal ECG, infection, abdominal pain, chest pain, dyspepsia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, rash, vertigo, nausea, hypertonia, increased SGPT, urinary tract infection, impotence, peripheral edema, pyuria, bronchitis, and fever. See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS for discussion of anaphylactoid reactions, angioedema, hypotension, neutropenia/agranulocytosis, fetal/neonatal morbidity and mortality, serum electrolyte imbalances, and cough.

The following adverse experiences, some of which are of uncertain drug relationship, were reported in moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets controlled or uncontrolled clinical trials in less than 1% of patients or have been attributed to other ACE inhibitors. Within each organ system, adverse experiences are listed in decreasing frequency.

Cardiovascular: palpitation, flushing, syncope, tachycardia, myocardial infarct, hypotension, postural hypotension, arrhythmia, first degree AV block, ventricular extrasystoles, atrial fibrillation, migraine, hemorrhage, sinus bradycardia, bigeminy, bradycardia, bundle branch block, heart arrest, myocardial ischemia, peripheral vascular disorder, prolonged QT interval, inverted T wave, ventricular fibrillation.

Dermatologic: eczema, pruritus, sweating, acne, dry skin, herpes simplex, contact dermatitis, herpes zoster, psoriasis, alopecia, angioedema, erythema nodosum, fungal dermatitis, furunculosis, maculopapular rash, purpuric rash, skin carcinoma, subcutaneous nodule, urticaria, pemphigus.

Gastrointestinal: vomiting, constipation, gastroenteritis, periodontal abscess, cholelithiasis, gastritis, gingivitis, esophagitis, flatulence, anorexia, colitis, dysphagia, tooth caries, cheilitis, enteritis, eructation, gastrointestinal carcinoma, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, glossitis, increased appetite, jaundice, melena, rectal hemorrhage, stomatitis, tongue discoloration, tongue edema.

Hematologic: anemia, hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, abnormal erythrocytes, ecchymosis, lymphocytosis, hemolysis, lymphadenopathy, eosinophilia, petechia, abnormal WBC, hemolytic anemia.

Metabolic: hyperlipemia, increased SGOT, gout, bilirubinemia, increased creatinine, hypercholesterolemia, increased BUN, increased CPK, diabetes mellitus, hyponatremia, thirst, edema, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased amylase, dehydration, decreased glucose tolerance, goiter, hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, hypoproteinemia, weight gain

Neurologic/Psychiatric: insomnia, postural dizziness, somnolence, dry mouth, anxiety, nervousness, paresthesia, depression, neuritis, hypesthesia, decreased libido, neuralgia, amnesia, ataxia, cerebral infarct, emotional lability, facial paralysis, hypokinesia, neurosis, vocal cord paralysis

Renal: albuminuria, urinary frequency, hematuria, glycosuria, cystitis, dysuria, nocturia, polyuria, kidney calculus, pyelonephritis, urate crystalluria, urinary casts, and urinary retention.

Respiratory: epistaxis, pneumonia, dyspnea, asthma, lung carcinoma, hemoptysis, laryngitis, voice alteration, eosinophilic pneumonitis.

Urogenital: vaginal hemorrhage, breast carcinoma, scrotal edema, vaginitis, breast enlargement, breast pain, dysmenorrhea, leukorrhea.

Other: asthenia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, arthrosis, hernia, neck pain, cyst, tenosynovitis, abnormal vision, allergic reaction, arthritis, cataract, cellulitis, moniliasis, otitis media, eye hemorrhage, chills, abscess, bursitis, deafness, ear pain, glaucoma, iritis, neck rigidity, photosensitivity, retinal degeneration, tinnitus.

Monotherapy with moexipril has been evaluated for safety in over 3000 patients. In clinical trials, the observed adverse experiences with moexipril were similar to those seen in the moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets trials.

Hydrochlorothiazide

The following adverse reactions have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide and, within each organ system, are listed by decreasing severity.

Cardiovascular: orthostatic hypotension (may be potentiated by alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics)

Gastrointestinal: pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic, see WARNINGS ), sialadenitis, vomiting, diarrhea, cramping, nausea, gastric irritation, constipation, anorexia.

Neurologic/Psychiatric: vertigo, dizziness, transient blurred vision, headache, paresthesia, xanthopsia, weakness, restlessness.

Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm.

Hematologic: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.

Metabolic: hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia.

Hypersensitivity: necrotizing angiitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, purpura, urticaria, rash, photosensitivity

Clinical Laboratory Test Findings

Serum Electrolytes: See PRECAUTIONS, General .

Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen: As with other ACE inhibitors, minor increases in blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine, reversible upon discontinuation of therapy, were observed in less than 1% of patients with essential hypertension who were treated with moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Increases are more likely to occur in patients with compromised renal function (see PRECAUTIONS, General ).

Other (causal relationship unknown): Clinically important changes in standard laboratory tests were rarely associated with moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets administration.

Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide Dosage and Administration

Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide are effective treatments for hypertension. The recommended dosage range of moexipril is 7.5 to 30 mg daily, administered in a single or two divided doses one hour before meals, while hydrochlorothiazide is effective in a dosage of 12.5 to 50 mg daily.

The side effects (see WARNINGS ) of moexipril are generally rare and apparently independent of dose; those of hydrochlorothiazide are a mixture of dose-dependent phenomena (primarily hypokalemia) and dose-independent phenomena (e.g., pancreatitis), the former much more common than the latter.

Therapy with any combination of Moexipril and Hydrochlorothiazide will be associated with both sets of dose-independent side effects, but regimens in which moexipril is combined with low doses of hydrochlorothiazide produce minimal effects on serum potassium. In Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets controlled clinical trials, the average change in serum potassium was near zero in subjects who received 3.75 mg / 6.25 mg or 7.5 mg / 12.5 mg, but subjects who received 15 mg / 12.5 mg or 15 mg / 25 mg experienced a mild decrease in serum potassium, similar to that experienced by subjects who received the same dose of hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy. To minimize dose-independent side effects, it is usually appropriate to begin combination therapy only after a patient has failed to achieve the desired effect with monotherapy.

Dose Titration Guided by Clinical Effect: A patient whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled with either moexipril or hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy may be given Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 7.5 mg / 12.5 mg, Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 15 mg / 12.5 mg or Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 15 mg / 25 mg one hour before a meal. Further increases of moexipril, hydrochlorothiazide or both depend on clinical response. The hydrochlorothiazide dose should generally not be increased until 2-3 weeks have elapsed.

Total daily doses above 30 mg / 50 mg a day have not been studied in hypertensive patients. Patients whose blood pressures are adequately controlled with 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide daily, but who experience significant potassium loss with this regimen, may achieve blood pressure control without electrolyte disturbance if they are switched to moexipril3.75 mg / hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg (one-half of the moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets7.5 mg / 12.5 mg tablet). For patients who experience an excessive reduction in blood pressure with moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 7.5 mg / 12.5 mg, the physician may consider prescribing moexipril 3.75 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 6.25 mg.

Replacement Therapy: The combination may be substituted for the titrated individual active ingredients.

Use in Renal Impairment: The usual dosage regimen of moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets does not need to be adjusted as long as the patient's creatinine clearance is > 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 (serum creatinine approximately ≤ 3 mg/dL or 265 μmol/L). In patients with more severe renal impairment, loop diuretics are preferred to thiazides, so moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets is not recommended (see PRECAUTIONS, General ).

Dosing Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Drug Interactions

ACE Inhibitors: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Management: Aliskiren use with ACEIs or ARBs in patients with diabetes is contraindicated. Combined use in other patients should be avoided, particularly when CrCl is less than 60 mL/min. If combined, monitor potassium, creatinine, and blood pressure closely. Consider therapy modification

Allopurinol: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the potential for allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol. Consider therapy modification

Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, blood pressure lowering medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Consider therapy modification

Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic). Avoid combination

Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical). Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Analgesics (Opioid): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diuretics. Analgesics (Opioid) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of ACE Inhibitors. Management: In US labeling, use of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended. It is not clear if any other combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB would be any safer. Consider alternatives to the combination when possible. Consider therapy modification

Anticholinergic Agents: May increase the serum concentration of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). Monitor therapy

Aprotinin: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

AzaTHIOprine: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of AzaTHIOprine. Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Benazepril: HydroCHLOROthiazide may enhance the hypotensive effect of Benazepril. HydroCHLOROthiazide may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Benazepril. Benazepril may decrease the serum concentration of HydroCHLOROthiazide. Monitor therapy

Benperidol: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Beta2-Agonists: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the absorption of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. The diuretic response is likewise decreased. Consider therapy modification

Brigatinib: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Brigatinib may enhance the bradycardic effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Calcium Salts: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may decrease the excretion of Calcium Salts. Continued concomitant use can also result in metabolic alkalosis. Monitor therapy

Canagliflozin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Canagliflozin may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CarBAMazepine. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for hyponatremia. Monitor therapy

Cardiac Glycosides: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cardiac Glycosides. Specifically, cardiac glycoside toxicity may be enhanced by the hypokalemic and hypomagnesemic effect of thiazide diuretics. Monitor therapy

Ciprofloxacin (Systemic): ACE Inhibitors may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Ciprofloxacin (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Orally Inhaled): May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Systemic): May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Cyclophosphamide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cyclophosphamide. Specifically, granulocytopenia may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Dexketoprofen: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sulfonamides. Monitor therapy

Diacerein: May enhance the therapeutic effect of Diuretics. Specifically, the risk for dehydration or hypokalemia may be increased. Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Diazoxide. Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Dofetilide: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dofetilide. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Avoid combination

DPP-IV Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy

Drospirenone: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy

DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Monitor therapy

Eplerenone: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Everolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy

Ferric Gluconate: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Gluconate. Monitor therapy

Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex. Specifically, the risk for angioedema or allergic reactions may be increased. Monitor therapy

Gold Sodium Thiomalate: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Gold Sodium Thiomalate. An increased risk of nitritoid reactions has been appreciated. Monitor therapy

Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract): ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Specifically, ACE inhibitors may increase the risk of severe allergic reaction to Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). Consider therapy modification

Heparin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Heparin (Low Molecular Weight): May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Highest Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents: QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Highest Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Management: Avoid such combinations when possible. Use should be accompanied by close monitoring for evidence of QT prolongation or other alterations of cardiac rhythm. Consider therapy modification

Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy

Icatibant: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Ipragliflozin: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Specifically, the risk for intravascular volume depletion may be increased. Monitor therapy

Iron Dextran Complex: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iron Dextran Complex. Specifically, patients receiving an ACE inhibitor may be at an increased risk for anaphylactic-type reactions. Management: Follow iron dextran recommendations closely regarding both having resuscitation equipment and trained personnel on-hand prior to iron dextran administration and the use of a test dose prior to the first therapeutic dose. Consider therapy modification

Ivabradine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Ivabradine. Monitor therapy

Lanthanum: May decrease the serum concentration of ACE Inhibitors. Management: Administer angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at least two hours before or after lanthanum. Consider therapy modification

Levodopa: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa. Monitor therapy

Levosulpiride: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Levosulpiride. Avoid combination

Licorice: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Lithium: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may decrease the excretion of Lithium. Consider therapy modification

Lithium: ACE Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Management: Lithium dosage reductions will likely be needed following the addition of an ACE inhibitor. Monitor patient response to lithium closely following addition or discontinuation of concurrent ACE inhibitor treatment. Consider therapy modification

Loop Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Loop Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Lormetazepam: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Mecamylamine: Sulfonamides may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mecamylamine. Avoid combination

Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

MiFEPRIStone: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying). Management: Though the drugs listed here have uncertain QT-prolonging effects, they all have some possible association with QT prolongation and should generally be avoided when possible. Consider therapy modification

Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents: QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Monitor therapy

Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron). Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron). Specifically, thiazide diuretics may decrease the excretion of calcium, and continued concomitant use can also result in metabolic alkalosis. Monitor therapy

Naftopidil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nicergoline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nitroprusside: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Nitroprusside. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Consider therapy modification

OXcarbazepine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OXcarbazepine. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for hyponatremia. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Pholcodine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Pholcodine. Monitor therapy

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Porfimer: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Porfimer. Monitor therapy

Potassium Salts: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Pregabalin: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Pregabalin. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy

Promazine: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Promazine. Avoid combination

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Quinagolide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Reboxetine: May enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Sacubitril: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sacubitril. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased with this combination. Avoid combination

Salicylates: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Salicylates may diminish the therapeutic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the hyponatremic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Sirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Sodium Phosphates: ACE Inhibitors may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with ACEIs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Consider therapy modification

Sodium Phosphates: Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with diuretics, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, hydrate adequately and monitor fluid and renal status. Consider therapy modification

Temsirolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

TiZANidine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Tolvaptan: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Topiramate: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Topiramate. Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may increase the serum concentration of Topiramate. Management: Monitor for increased topiramate levels/adverse effects (e.g., hypokalemia) with initiation/dose increase of a thiazide diuretic. Closely monitor serum potassium concentrations with concomitant therapy. Topiramate dose reductions may be necessary. Consider therapy modification

Trimethoprim: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Verteporfin: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Verteporfin. Monitor therapy

Vitamin D Analogs: Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics may enhance the hypercalcemic effect of Vitamin D Analogs. Monitor therapy

Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Test Interactions

See individual agents.

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