Name: Xigduo XR
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Xigduo XR Drug Class
Xigduo XR is part of the drug class:
Combinations of oral blood glucose lowering drugs
What is the most important information I should know about dapagliflozin and metformin?
You should not use this medicine if you have moderate to severe kidney disease, if you are on dialysis, or if you have metabolic acidosis. Dapagliflozin and metformin is not for treating type 1 diabetes.
If you need to have any type of x-ray or CT scan using a dye that is injected into your veins, you will need to temporarily stop taking dapagliflozin and metformin.
This medicine may cause a serious condition called lactic acidosis. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as: muscle pain or weakness, numb or cold feeling in your arms and legs, trouble breathing, stomach pain, nausea with vomiting, slow or uneven heart rate, dizziness, or feeling very weak or tired.
Precautions While Using Xigduo XR
It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits, especially during the first few weeks that you take this medicine. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.
It is very important to follow carefully any instructions from your doctor about:
- Alcohol—Drinking alcohol may cause severe low blood sugar. Discuss this with your doctor.
- Other medicines—Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This especially includes nonprescription medicines such as aspirin, and medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay fever, or sinus problems.
- Counseling—Other family members need to learn how to prevent side effects or help with side effects if they occur. Also, patients with diabetes may need special counseling about diabetes medicine dosing changes that might occur because of lifestyle changes, such as changes in exercise and diet. Furthermore, counseling on contraception and pregnancy may be needed because of the problems that can occur in patients with diabetes during pregnancy.
- Travel—Keep a recent prescription and your medical history with you. Be prepared for an emergency as you would normally. Make allowances for changing time zones and keep your meal times as close as possible to your usual meal times.
- In case of emergency—There may be a time when you need emergency help for a problem caused by your diabetes. You need to be prepared for these emergencies. It is a good idea to wear a medical identification (ID) bracelet or neck chain at all times. Also, carry an ID card in your wallet or purse that says that you have diabetes and a list of all of your medicines.
Under certain conditions, too much metformin can cause a serious condition called lactic acidosis. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are severe and appear quickly. Lactic acidosis usually occurs when other serious health problems are present, such as a heart attack or kidney failure. The symptoms of lactic acidosis include: abdominal or stomach discomfort, decreased appetite, diarrhea, fast or shallow breathing, a general feeling of discomfort, muscle pain or cramping, and unusual sleepiness, tiredness, or weakness. If you have more than one of these symptoms together, you should get immediate emergency medical help.
Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur with this medicine. This is more common if you have kidney disease, low blood pressure, or if you are taking a diuretic (water pill). Taking plenty of fluids each day may help. Drink plenty of water during exercise or in hot weather. Check with your doctor if you have severe nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea that does not stop. This may cause you to lose too much water.
Ketoacidosis (high ketones and acid in the blood) may occur while you are using this medicine. This can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Your doctor may give you insulin, fluid, and carbohydrate replacement to treat this condition. Tell your doctor right away if you have nausea, vomiting, trouble breathing, increased thirst or urination.
Tell your doctor if you have bloody urine, decrease in how much or how often you urinate, painful or difficult urination, lower back or side pain, fever, chills, or swelling of the face, finger, or lower legs. These may be symptoms of a serious kidney problem.
Let your doctor or dentist know you are taking this medicine. Your doctor may advise you to stop taking this medicine before you have major surgery or diagnostic tests, especially tests that use a contrast dye.
This medicine may cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). This is more common when this medicine is taken together with other diabetes medicines (eg, insulin, glipizide, glyburide). The symptoms of low blood sugar must be treated before they cause you to pass out. People feel different symptoms with low blood sugar. It is important that you learn which symptoms you usually have so you can treat it quickly. Some symptoms of low blood sugar include behavior changes that are similar to being drunk, blurred vision, cold sweats, confusion, cool, pale skin, difficulty with thinking, drowsiness, excessive hunger, a fast heartbeat, headaches that continue, nausea, shakiness, slurred speech, or unusual tiredness or weakness. Talk to your doctor about how to treat low blood sugar.
This medicine may cause vaginal yeast infections in women and yeast infections of the penis in men. This is more common in patients who have a history of genital yeast infections or in men who are not circumcised. Women may have a vaginal discharge, itching, or odor. Men may have redness, itching, swelling, or pain around the penis, or a discharge with a strong odor from the penis. Check with your doctor right away if you have any of these symptoms.
This medicine may increase risk of having urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis or urosepsis. Check with your doctor right away if you have bladder pain, bloody or cloudy urine, difficult, burning, or painful urination, or lower back or side pain.
This medicine may make you dizzy. Do not drive or do anything else that could be dangerous until you know how this medicine affects you. Stand up slowly if you feel dizzy.
This medicine may be associated with the development of bladder cancer and should not be used in patients with active bladder cancer. Check with your doctor right away if you have blood in your urine or pain while urinating.
Do not drink a lot of alcohol while you are using this medicine. Heavy alcohol use can increase your risk for lactic acidosis.
Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) may occur if you do not take enough or skip a dose of your diabetes medicine, overeat or do not follow your diet plan, have a fever or infection, or do not exercise as much as usual. Some symptoms of high blood sugar include blurred vision, drowsiness, dry mouth, flushed and dry skin, a fruit-like breath odor, increased frequency and amount of urination, ketones in the urine, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, rapid and deep breathing, tiredness, or unusual thirst. If symptoms of high blood sugar occur, check your blood sugar level and call your doctor for instructions.
If you develop a skin rash, hives, or any allergic reaction to this medicine, check with your doctor as soon as possible.
What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?
WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
- Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
- Signs of fluid and electrolyte problems like mood changes, confusion, muscle pain or weakness, a heartbeat that does not feel normal, very bad dizziness or passing out, fast heartbeat, more thirst, seizures, feeling very tired or weak, not hungry, unable to pass urine or change in the amount of urine produced, dry mouth, dry eyes, or very bad upset stomach or throwing up.
- Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
- Signs of too much acid in the blood (acidosis) like confusion; fast breathing; fast heartbeat; a heartbeat the does not feel normal; very bad stomach pain, upset stomach, or throwing up; feeling very sleepy; shortness of breath; or feeling very tired or weak.
- Signs of a urinary tract infection (UTI) like blood in the urine, burning or pain when passing urine, feeling the need to pass urine often or right away, fever, lower stomach pain, or pelvic pain.
- For females, vaginal yeast infection. Report itching or discharge.
- For men, yeast infection of the penis. Report pain, swelling, rash, or discharge.
- Very bad belly pain.
- Low blood sugar can happen. The chance of low blood sugar may be raised when Xigduo XR is used with other drugs for high blood sugar (diabetes). Signs may be dizziness, headache, feeling sleepy, feeling weak, shaking, a fast heartbeat, confusion, hunger, or sweating. Call your doctor right away if you have any of these signs. Follow what you have been told to do if you get low blood sugar. This may include taking glucose tablets, liquid glucose, or some fruit juices.
How do I store and/or throw out Xigduo XR?
- Store at room temperature.
- Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
- Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
- Check with your pharmacist about how to throw out unused drugs.
Dosage Forms and Strengths
Xigduo XR is a combination of dapagliflozin and metformin HCl extended-release. Xigduo XR tablets are available in the following dosage forms and strengths:• 2.5 mg/1000 mg tablets are light brown to brown, biconvex, oval-shaped, and film-coated tablets with "1074" and "2.5/1000" debossed on one side and plain on the reverse side. • 5 mg/500 mg tablets are orange, biconvex, capsule-shaped, and film-coated tablets with "1070" and "5/500" debossed on one side and plain on the reverse side. • 5 mg/1000 mg tablets are pink to dark pink, biconvex, oval-shaped, and film-coated tablets with "1071" and "5/1000" debossed on one side and plain on the reverse side. • 10 mg/500 mg tablets are pink, biconvex, capsule-shaped, and film-coated tablets with "1072" and "10/500" debossed on one side and plain on the reverse side. • 10 mg/1000 mg tablets are yellow to dark yellow, biconvex, oval-shaped, and film-coated tablets with "1073" and "10/1000" debossed on one side and plain on the reverse side.
Xigduo XR is contraindicated in patients with:• Moderate to severe renal impairment (eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), end stage renal disease or patients on dialysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. • History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to dapagliflozin or hypersensitivity to metformin hydrochloride [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. • Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma. Diabetic ketoacidosis should be treated with insulin.
Positive Urine Glucose Test
Monitoring glycemic control with urine glucose tests is not recommended in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors as SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion and will lead to positive urine glucose tests. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.
Interference with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) Assay
Monitoring glycemic control with 1,5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Topiramate or other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide) frequently causes a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of these drugs with Xigduo XR may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider more frequent monitoring of these patients.
Drugs that Reduce Metformin Clearance
Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2] / multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] inhibitors such as ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use.
Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving Xigduo XR.
Use with Other Drugs
Some medications can predispose to hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. These medications include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving Xigduo XR, the patient should be observed closely for loss of glycemic control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving Xigduo XR, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia.
In healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of metformin and propranolol, and of metformin and ibuprofen were not affected when coadministered in single-dose interaction studies.
Use in specific populations
PregnancyPregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Xigduo XR or its individual components in pregnant women. Based on results of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in animals, dapagliflozin, a component of Xigduo XR, may affect renal development and maturation. In a juvenile rat study, increased incidence and/or severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatations were evident at the lowest tested dose which was approximately 15 times clinical exposure from a 10 mg dose.
These outcomes occurred with drug exposures during periods of animal development that correlate with the late second and third trimesters of human pregnancy. During pregnancy, consider appropriate alternative therapies, especially during the second and third trimesters. Xigduo XR should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In a juvenile toxicity study, when dapagliflozin was dosed directly to young rats from postnatal day (PND) 21 until PND 90 at doses of 1, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day, increased kidney weights and renal pelvic and tubular dilatations were reported at all levels. Exposure at the lowest tested dose was 15 times the maximum clinical dose, based on AUC. The renal pelvic and tubular dilatations observed in juvenile animals did not fully reverse within the approximate 1-month recovery period.
In a prenatal and postnatal development study, maternal rats were dosed from gestation day 6 through lactation day 21 at doses of 1, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day, and pups were indirectly exposed in utero and throughout lactation. Increased incidence or severity of renal pelvic dilatation was observed in adult offspring of treated dams at 75 mg/kg/day (maternal and pup dapagliflozin exposures were 1415 times and 137 times, respectively, the human values at the clinical dose). Dose-related reductions in pup body weights were observed at doses ≥1 mg/kg/day (approximately ≥19 times the clinical dose). No adverse effects on developmental endpoints were noted at 1 mg/kg/day, or approximately 19 times the clinical dose.
In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, dapagliflozin was administered for intervals coinciding with the first trimester period of organogenesis in humans. No developmental toxicities were observed in rabbits at any dose tested. In rats, dapagliflozin was neither embryolethal nor teratogenic at doses up to 75 mg/kg/day or 1441 times the maximum clinical dose of 10 mg. At higher doses in rats, malformations of blood vessels, ribs, vertebrae, manubria, and skeletal variations in fetuses at ≥150 mg/kg or 2344 times the 10 mg clinical dose were observed.
Metformin hydrochloride did not cause adverse developmental effect when administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits up to 600 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. This represents an exposure of about 2- and 6-times a 2000 mg clinical dose based on body surface area (mg/m2) for rats and rabbits, respectively. Metformin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day. This represents an exposure of about 2 and 6 times the MRHD of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons for rats and rabbits, respectively. Determination of fetal concentrations demonstrated a partial placental barrier to metformin.
It is not known whether Xigduo XR is excreted in human milk. In studies performed with the individual components, both dapagliflozin (reaching levels 0.49 times that found in maternal plasma) and metformin are excreted in the milk of lactating rats.
Data in juvenile rats directly exposed to dapagliflozin showed risk to the developing kidney (renal pelvic and tubular dilatations) during maturation. Since human kidney maturation occurs in utero and in the first 2 years of life when lactational exposure may occur, there may be risk to the developing human kidney. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from dapagliflozin, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue Xigduo XR, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of Xigduo XR in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established.
No Xigduo XR dosage change is recommended based on age. More frequent assessment of renal function is recommended in elderly patients.
A total of 1424 (24%) of the 5936 dapagliflozin-treated patients were 65 years and over and 207 (3.5%) patients were 75 years and older in a pool of 21 double-blind, controlled, clinical safety and efficacy studies of dapagliflozin. After controlling for level of renal function (eGFR), efficacy was similar for patients under age 65 years and those 65 years and older. In patients ≥65 years of age, a higher proportion of patients treated with dapagliflozin had adverse reactions related to volume depletion and renal impairment or failure compared to patients treated with placebo [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Controlled clinical studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients, although other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and young patients. Metformin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and because the risk of lactic acidosis with metformin is greater in patients with moderately to severely impaired renal function. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Patients with Mild Renal Impairment (eGFR ≥60 to <90 mL/min/1.73 m2)
The pool of 21 double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies (dapagliflozin as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic therapies) included 53% (4906/9339) of patients with mild renal impairment. The safety profile in patients with mild renal impairment is similar to that in the overall population.
Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. Xigduo XR is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
PACKAGE/LABEL PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 10 mg/1000 mg
10 mg/500 mg
Dispense with Medication Guide
Do not crush, cut, or chew tablets.
Tablets must be swallowed whole.
What should I avoid while taking Xigduo XR?
Avoid drinking alcohol. It lowers blood sugar and may increase your risk of lactic acidosis while taking this medicine.
Avoid getting up too fast from a sitting or lying position, or you may feel dizzy. Get up slowly and steady yourself to prevent a fall.
What other drugs will affect Xigduo XR?
Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any you start or stop using, especially:
digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin);
a diuretic or "water pill";
insulin or other oral diabetes medications;
NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) - aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), celecoxib, diclofenac, indomethacin, meloxicam, and others; or
seizure medicine - phenobarbital, phenytoin.
This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with dapagliflozin and metformin, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide.