Name: Cyclophosphamide Capsules
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- Cyclophosphamide Capsules drug
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What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?
WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:
- Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
- Signs of infection like fever, chills, very bad sore throat, ear or sinus pain, cough, more sputum or change in color of sputum, pain with passing urine, mouth sores, or wound that will not heal.
- Signs of bleeding like throwing up blood or throw up that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; blood in the urine; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; vaginal bleeding that is not normal; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any bleeding that is very bad or that you cannot stop.
- Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
- Signs of low sodium levels like headache, trouble focusing, memory problems, feeling confused, weakness, seizures, or change in balance.
- Feeling very tired or weak.
- Shortness of breath, a big weight gain, or swelling in the arms or legs.
- Dizziness or passing out.
- A heartbeat that does not feel normal.
- A wound that does not heal.
- Very bad and sometimes deadly urinary tract problems like hemorrhagic cystitis have happened with this medicine (cyclophosphamide capsules). Call your doctor right away if you have blood in the urine or pain when passing urine.
- Very bad and sometimes deadly liver problems have happened with this medicine. Call your doctor right away if you have signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
What are some other side effects of Cyclophosphamide Capsules?
All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:
- Not hungry.
- Loose stools (diarrhea).
- Hair loss.
- Upset stomach or throwing up.
- Belly pain.
- Change in color of skin.
- Change in nails.
These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. You may also report side effects at http://www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Warnings and Precautions
Myelosuppression, Immunosuppression, Bone Marrow Failure and Infections
Cyclophosphamide can cause myelosuppression (leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia), bone marrow failure, and severe immunosuppression which may lead to serious and sometimes fatal infections, including sepsis and septic shock. Latent infections can be reactivated [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.2)].
Antimicrobial prophylaxis may be indicated in certain cases of neutropenia at the discretion of the managing physician. In case of neutropenic fever, antibiotic therapy is indicated. Antimycotics and/or antivirals may also be indicated.
Monitoring of complete blood counts is essential during cyclophosphamide treatment so that the dose can be adjusted, if needed. Cyclophosphamide should not be administered to patients with neutrophils ≤1,500/mm3 and platelets <50,000/mm3. Cyclophosphamide treatment may not be indicated, or should be interrupted, or the dose reduced, in patients who have or who develop a serious infection. G-CSF may be administered to reduce the risks of neutropenia complications associated with cyclophosphamide use. Primary and secondary prophylaxis with G-CSF should be considered in all patients considered to be at increased risk for neutropenia complications. The nadirs of the reduction in leukocyte count and thrombocyte count are usually reached in weeks 1 and 2 of treatment. Peripheral blood cell counts are expected to normalize after approximately 20 days. Bone marrow failure has been reported. Severe myelosuppression may be expected particularly in patients pretreated with and/or receiving concomitant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
Urinary Tract and Renal Toxicity
Hemorrhagic cystitis, pyelitis, ureteritis, and hematuria have been reported with cyclophosphamide. Medical and/or surgical supportive treatment may be required to treat protracted cases of severe hemorrhagic cystitis. Discontinue cyclophosphamide therapy in case of severe hemorrhagic cystitis.
Urotoxicity (bladder ulceration, necrosis, fibrosis, contracture and secondary cancer) may require interruption of cyclophosphamide treatment or cystectomy. Urotoxicity can be fatal. Urotoxicity can occur with short-term or long-term use of cyclophosphamide.
Before starting treatment, exclude or correct any urinary tract obstructions [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4)]. Urinary sediment should be checked regularly for the presence of erythrocytes and other signs of urotoxicity and/or nephrotoxicity. Cyclophosphamide should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active urinary tract infections. Aggressive hydration with forced diuresis and frequent bladder emptying can reduce the frequency and severity of bladder toxicity. Mesna has been used to prevent severe bladder toxicity.
Myocarditis, myopericarditis, pericardial effusion including cardiac tamponade, and congestive heart failure, which may be fatal, have been reported with cyclophosphamide therapy.
Supraventricular arrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation and flutter) and ventricular arrhythmias (including severe QT prolongation associated with ventricular tachyarrhythmia) have been reported after treatment with regimens that included cyclophosphamide.
The risk of cardiotoxicity may be increased with high doses of cyclophosphamide, in patients with advanced age, and in patients with previous radiation treatment to the cardiac region and/or previous or concomitant treatment with other cardiotoxic agents.
Particular caution is necessary in patients with risk factors for cardiotoxicity and in patients with pre-existing cardiac disease.
Monitor patients with risk factors for cardiotoxicity and with pre-existing cardiac disease.
Pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and other forms of pulmonary toxicity leading to respiratory failure have been reported during and following treatment with cyclophosphamide. Late onset pneumonitis (greater than 6 months after start of cyclophosphamide) appears to be associated with increased mortality. Pneumonitis may develop years after treatment with cyclophosphamide.
Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pulmonary toxicity.
Cyclophosphamide is genotoxic [see NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY (13.1)]. Secondary malignancies (urinary tract cancer, myelodysplasia, acute leukemias, lymphomas, thyroid cancer, and sarcomas) have been reported in patients treated with cyclophosphamide-containing regimens. The risk of bladder cancer may be reduced by prevention of hemorrhagic cystitis.
Veno-occlusive Liver Disease
Veno-occlusive liver disease (VOD) including fatal outcome has been reported in patients receiving cyclophosphamide-containing regimens. A cytoreductive regimen in preparation for bone marrow transplantation that consists of cyclophosphamide in combination with whole-body irradiation, busulfan, or other agents has been identified as a major risk factor. VOD has also been reported to develop gradually in patients receiving long-term low-dose immunosuppressive doses of cyclophosphamide. Other risk factors predisposing to the development of VOD include preexisting disturbances of hepatic function, previous radiation therapy of the abdomen, and a low performance status.
Cyclophosphamide can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.1)]. Exposure to cyclophosphamide during pregnancy may cause birth defects, miscarriage, fetal growth retardation, and fetotoxic effects in the newborn. Cyclophosphamide is teratogenic and embryo-fetal toxic in mice, rats, rabbits and monkeys.
Advise female patients of reproductive potential to avoid becoming pregnant and to use highly effective contraception during treatment and for up to 1 year after completion of therapy [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.6)].
Male and female reproductive function and fertility may be impaired in patients being treated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide interferes with oogenesis and spermatogenesis. It may cause sterility in both sexes. Development of sterility appears to depend on the dose of cyclophosphamide, duration of therapy, and the state of gonadal function at the time of treatment. Cyclophosphamide-induced sterility may be irreversible in some patients. Advise patients on the potential risks for infertility [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.4 and 8.6)].
Impairment of Wound Healing
Cyclophosphamide may interfere with normal wound healing.
Hyponatremia associated with increased total body water, acute water intoxication, and a syndrome resembling SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone), which may be fatal, has been reported.
Common Adverse ReactionsHematopoietic system
Neutropenia occurs in patients treated with cyclophosphamide. The degree of neutropenia is particularly important because it correlates with a reduction in resistance to infections. Fever without documented infection has been reported in neutropenic patients.Gastrointestinal system
Nausea and vomiting occur with cyclophosphamide therapy. Anorexia and, less frequently, abdominal discomfort or pain and diarrhea may occur. There are isolated reports of hemorrhagic colitis, oral mucosal ulceration and jaundice occurring during therapy.
Skin and its structures
Alopecia occurs in patients treated with cyclophosphamide. Skin rash occurs occasionally in patients receiving the drug. Pigmentation of the skin and changes in nails can occur.
The following adverse reactions have been identified from clinical trials or post-marketing surveillance. Because they are reported from a population from unknown size, precise estimates of frequency cannot be made.
Cardiac: cardiac arrest, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, pericardial effusion (progressing to cardiac tamponade), myocardial hemorrhage, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure (including fatal outcomes), cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pericarditis, carditis, atrial fibrillation, supraventricular arrhythmia, ventricular arrhythmia, bradycardia, tachycardia, palpitations, QT prolongation.
Congenital, Familial and Genetic: intra-uterine death, fetal malformation, fetal growth retardation, fetal toxicity (including myelosuppression, gastroenteritis).
Ear and Labyrinth: deafness, hearing impaired, tinnitus.
Endocrine: water intoxication.
Eye: visual impairment, conjunctivitis, lacrimation.
Gastrointestinal: gastrointestinal hemorrhage, acute pancreatitis, colitis, enteritis, cecitis, stomatitis, constipation, parotid gland inflammation.
General Disorders and Administrative Site Conditions: multiorgan failure, general physical deterioration, influenza-like illness, injection/infusion site reactions (thrombosis, necrosis, phlebitis, inflammation, pain, swelling, erythema), pyrexia, edema, chest pain, mucosal inflammation, asthenia, pain, chills, fatigue, malaise, headache.
Hematologic: myelosuppression, bone marrow failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and hemolytic uremic syndrome (with thrombotic microangiopathy).
Hepatic: veno-occlusive liver disease, cholestatic hepatitis, cytolytic hepatitis, hepatitis, cholestasis; hepatotoxicity with hepatic failure, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, hepatomegaly, blood bilirubin increased, hepatic function abnormal, hepatic enzymes increased.
Immune: immunosuppression, anaphylactic shock and hypersensitivity reaction.
Infections: The following manifestations have been associated with myelosuppression and immunosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide: increased risk for and severity of pneumonias (including fatal outcomes), other bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal and, parasitic infections; reactivation of latent infections, (including viral hepatitis, tuberculosis), Pneumocystis jiroveci, herpes zoster, Strongyloides, sepsis and septic shock.
Investigations: blood lactate dehydrogenase increased, C-reactive protein increased.
Metabolism and Nutrition: hyponatremia, fluid retention, blood glucose increased, blood glucose decreased.
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue: rhabdomyolysis, scleroderma, muscle spasms, myalgia, arthralgia.
Neoplasms: acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, lymphoma, sarcomas, renal cell carcinoma, renal pelvis cancer, bladder cancer, ureteric cancer, thyroid cancer.
Nervous System: encephalopathy, convulsion, dizziness, neurotoxicity has been reported and manifested as reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, polyneuropathy, neuralgia, dysesthesia, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, tremor, dysgeusia, hypogeusia, parosmia.
Pregnancy: premature labor.
Psychiatric: confusional state.
Renal and Urinary: renal failure, renal tubular disorder, renal impairment, nephropathy toxic, hemorrhagic cystitis, bladder necrosis, cystitis ulcerative, bladder contracture, hematuria, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, atypical urinary bladder epithelial cells.
Reproductive System: infertility, ovarian failure, ovarian disorder, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, testicular atrophy, azoospermia, oligospermia.
Respiratory: pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome, interstitial lung disease as manifested by respiratory failure (including fatal outcomes), obliterative bronchiolitis, organizing pneumonia, alveolitis allergic, pneumonitis, pulmonary hemorrhage; respiratory distress, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, bronchospasm, dyspnea, hypoxia, cough, nasal congestion, nasal discomfort, oropharyngeal pain, rhinorrhea.
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue: toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, radiation recall dermatitis, toxic skin eruption, urticaria, dermatitis, blister, pruritus, erythema, nail disorder, facial swelling, hyperhidrosis.
Tumor Lysis Syndrome: like other cytotoxic drugs, cyclophosphamide may induce tumor-lysis syndrome and hyperuricemia in patients with rapidly growing tumors.
Vascular: pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, vasculitis, peripheral ischemia, hypertension, hypotension, flushing, hot flush.
No specific antidote for cyclophosphamide is known.
Overdosage should be managed with supportive measures, including appropriate treatment for any concurrent infection, myelosuppression, or cardiac toxicity should it occur.
Serious consequences of overdosage include manifestations of dose dependent toxicities such as myelosuppression, urotoxicity, cardiotoxicity (including cardiac failure), veno-occlusive hepatic disease, and stomatitis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1, 5.2, 5.3, and 5.6)].
Patients who received an overdose should be closely monitored for the development of toxicities, and hematologic toxicity in particular.
Cyclophosphamide and its metabolites are dialyzable. Therefore, rapid hemodialysis is indicated when treating any suicidal or accidental overdose or intoxication.
Cystitis prophylaxis with mesna may be helpful in preventing or limiting urotoxic effects with cyclophosphamide overdose.
Cyclophosphamide Capsules - Clinical Pharmacology
Mechanism of Action
The mechanism of action is thought to involve cross-linking of tumor cell DNA.
Cyclophosphamide is biotransformed principally in the liver to active alkylating metabolites by a mixed function microsomal oxidase system. These metabolites interfere with the growth of susceptible rapidly proliferating malignant cells.
Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t½) ranges from 3 to 12 hours with total body clearance (CL) values of 4 to 5.6 L/h. Pharmacokinetics are linear over the dose range used clinically. When cyclophosphamide was administered at 4.0 g/m2 over a 90 minutes infusion, saturable elimination in parallel with first-order renal elimination describe the kinetics of the drug.Absorption
After oral administration, peak concentrations of cyclophosphamide occurred at one hour. Area under the curve ratio for the drug after oral and IV administration (AUCpo : AUCiv) ranged from 0.87 to 0.96.Distribution
Approximately 20% of cyclophosphamide is protein bound, with no dose dependent changes. Some metabolites are protein bound to an extent greater than 60%. Volume of distribution approximates total body water (30 to 50 L).Metabolism
The liver is the major site of cyclophosphamide activation. Approximately 75% of the administered dose of cyclophosphamide is activated by hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450s including CYP2A6, 2B6, 3A4, 3A5, 2C9, 2C18 and 2C19, with 2B6 displaying the highest 4-hydroxylase activity. Cyclophosphamide is activated to form 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, which is in equilibrium with its ring-open tautomer aldophosphamide. 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and aldophosphamide can undergo oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenases to form the inactive metabolites 4-ketocyclophosphamide and carboxyphosphamide, respectively. Aldophosphamide can undergo β-elimination to form active metabolites phosphoramide mustard and acrolein. This spontaneous conversion can be catalyzed by albumin and other proteins. Less than 5% of cyclophosphamide may be directly detoxified by side chain oxidation, leading to the formation of inactive metabolites 2-dechloroethylcyclophosphamide. At high doses, the fraction of parent compound cleared by 4-hydroxylation is reduced resulting in non-linear elimination of cyclophosphamide in patients. Cyclophosphamide appears to induce its own metabolism. Auto-induction results in an increase in the total clearance, increased formation of 4-hydroxyl metabolites and shortened t½ values following repeated administration at 12- to 24-hour interval.Elimination
Cyclophosphamide is primarily excreted as metabolites. 10 to 20% is excreted unchanged in the urine and 4% is excreted in the bile following IV administration.Special Populations
The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide were determined following one-hour intravenous infusion to renally impaired patients. The results demonstrated that the systemic exposure to cyclophosphamide increased as the renal function decreased. Mean dose-corrected AUC increased by 38% in the moderate renal group, (Creatinine clearance CrCl of 25 to 50 mL/min), by 64% in the severe renal group (CrCl of 10 to 24 mL/min) and by 23% in the hemodialysis group (CrCl of <10 mL/min) compared to the control group. The increase in exposure was significant in the severe group (p>0.05); thus, patients with severe renal impairment should be closely monitored for toxicity [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.7)].
The dialyzability of cyclophosphamide was investigated in four patients on long-term hemodialysis. Dialysis clearance calculated by arterial-venous difference and actual drug recovery in dialysate averaged 104 mL/min, which is in the range of the metabolic clearance of 95 mL/min for the drug. A mean of 37% of the administered dose of cyclophosphamide was removed during hemodialysis. The elimination half-life (t½) was 3.3 hours in patients during hemodialysis, a 49% reduction of the 6.5 hours to t½ reported in uremic patients. Reduction in t½, larger dialysis clearance than metabolic clearance, high extraction efficiency, and significant drug removal during dialysis, suggest that cyclophosphamide is dialyzable.
Total body clearance (CL) of cyclophosphamide is decreased by 40% in patients with severe hepatic impairment and elimination half-life (t½) is prolonged by 64%. Mean CL and t½ were 45 ± 8.6 L/kg and 12.5 ± 1.0 hours respectively, in patients with severe hepatic impairment and 63 ± 7.6 L/kg and 7.6 ± 1.4 hours respectively in the control group [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.8)].
How Supplied/Storage and Handling
25 mg, supplied as a blue/blue opaque capsule with “54 006” printed in black ink on the cap and body, containing a white to off-white powder.
NDC 0054-0382-25: Bottle of 100 Capsules
50mg, supplied as a blue/blue opaque capsule with “54 881” printed in black ink on the cap and body, containing a white to off-white powder.
NDC 0054-0383-25: Bottle of 100 Capsules
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]
Cyclophosphamide is an antineoplastic product. Follow special handling and disposal procedures.1
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient of the following:• Inform patients of the possibility of myelosuppression, immunosuppression, and infections. Explain the need for routine blood cell counts. Instruct patients to monitor their temperature frequently and immediately report any occurrence of fever [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1)]. • Advise the patient to report urinary symptoms (patients should report if their urine has turned a pink or red color) and the need for increasing fluid intake and frequent voiding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.2)]. • Advise patients to contact a health care professional immediately for any of the following: new onset or worsening shortness of breath, cough, swelling of the ankles/legs, palpitations, weight gain of more than 5 pounds in 24 hours, dizziness or loss of consciousness [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.3)]. • Warn patients of the possibility of developing non-infectious pneumonitis. Advise patients to report promptly any new or worsening respiratory symptoms [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.4)]. • Advise female patients of reproductive potential to use highly effective contraception during treatment and for up to 1 year after completion of therapy. There is a potential for harm to a fetus if a patient becomes pregnant during this period. Patients should immediately contact their healthcare provider if they become pregnant or if pregnancy is suspected during this period [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.7) and USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.1)]. • Advise male patients who are sexually active with a female partner who is or may become pregnant to use condoms during treatment and for up to 4 months after completion of therapy. There is a potential for harm to a fetus if a patient fathers a child during this period. Patients should immediately contact their healthcare provider if their female partner becomes pregnant or if pregnancy is suspected during this period [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.7) and USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.1)]. • Advise nursing mothers treated with cyclophosphamide to discontinue nursing or discontinue cyclophosphamide, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.3)]. • Explain to patients that side effects such as nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, impaired wound healing, amenorrhea, premature menopause, sterility and hair loss may be associated with cyclophosphamide administration. Other undesirable effects (including, e.g., dizziness, blurred vision, visual impairment) could affect the ability to drive or use machines [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.1 and 6.2)]. • Instruct the patient to swallow Cyclophosphamide Capsules whole. Do not open, chew, or crush capsules [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.3)]. • Advise caregivers to wear gloves when handling cyclophosphamide containers and capsules and to avoid exposure to broken capsules. If contact with broken capsules occurs, wash hands immediately and thoroughly [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.3)].
Distr. by: West-Ward
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Revised April 2016